10 February 2022, Volume 36 Issue 2

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    Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
  • HE Niqing, YANG Dewei, ZHENG Xianghua, HUANG Fenghuang, CHENG Chaoping, YE Ning
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 245-250. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0245
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    Rice blast is one of the most important rice diseases, which brings great hidden danger to the safety and production of rice in China and even the whole world. Developing functional markers of broad-spectrum R gene combined with molecular marker assisted selection is one of the most effective methods to improve blast resistance of rice. In this study, Shuangkang 77009 was used as the donor parent of the resistance gene Pigm-1, and the susceptible restorer line R20 was used as the recipient parent. Through hybridization, backcross, and molecular marker assisted selection technology, four improved lines of R20 with enhanced blast resistance were obtained. Indoor inoculation and field naturally induced identification showed that the improved lines R20-1, R20-2, R20-3 and R20-4 were resistant to rice blast. Background restoration analysis showed that the four improved lines basically restored the background of the recipient parent. Compared with R20, the agronomic traits of R20-1, R20-2 and R20-3 showed no significant differences in plant height, panicle length, effective panicle, spikelet number per panicle, seed setting rate, grain length, grain width and thousand seeds weight. However, the grain length and thousand seeds weight of R20-4 were significantly increased compared to those of R20. This study indicated that the utilization of molecular marker assisted selection technology not only improved the resistance of the restorer R20, but also increased the yield in R20-4. This study provides some value and reference for molecular breeding of rice blast resistance gene Pigm-1.

  • BIAN Nengfei, TONG Fei, GONG Jiali, SUN Donglei, SHEN Yi, WANG Xing, XING Xinghua, WANG Xiaojun
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 251-258. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0251
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    The sucrose content of seed kernel is an important factor affecting the edible quality of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.). In order to establish an efficient technology for detecting sucrose content of peanut kernel, near infrared spectrum of a total of 149 peanut kernel samples were collected in this study, and the sucrose content of each sample was determined by chemical methods. A near-infrared calibration model of peanut seed sucrose content was established by partial least square (PLS) method. The results showed that the coefficient of determination (R2) was 0.898 and the squared error of calibration (SEC) was 0.253. The coefficient of determination between the predicted values and chemically tested values were 0.873 with 20 external samples, indicating that the model could be used to predict the sucrose content of peanut seeds very well. Using this model, four mutants with sucrose content higher than 6.00% were selected among 1965 EMS-induced M2 individuals derived from Xuhua 17. This study laid the foundation for selecting germplasm resources and developing peanut varieties with good eating quality.

  • YAO Rui, MA Xinlei, GU Pengpeng, LIN Xiaohu, GAO Hui
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 259-269. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0259
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    Thiolase, a key enzyme in fatty acid metabolism, was found to play an important role in plant secondary metabolic synthesis, growth and development, and abiotic stresses resistance. To investigate the basic characteristics of thiolase gene family in foxtail millet, the bioinformatic analysis were conducted to analyze the family members, the physicochemical properties and phylogenetic tree, gene structure, chromosome location, promoter, gene evolution. Expression profiling in root, stem, leaves and spike tissues was performed using transcriptome sequencing. The expressions of thiolase gene family under drought in foxtail millet were detected by quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that thiolase gene family had 5 members in foxtail millet, which encoded proteins with 401~461 aa in length and 41~48 kDa in weight, contained two conserved motifs specific to thiolase, and were located on four chromosomes respectively. The result of phylogenetic tree showed that thiolase protein could be divided into two subfamilies (KAT and ACAT). The gene encoding the KAT-type thiolase had 14 exons and the ACAT-type thiolase had 13 exons. Gene evolutionary analysis revealed both functional redundancy and functional divergence. Promoter regions contained light-related elements and other cis-acting elements responding to hormones, abiotic stress. The expression of foxtail millet thiolase genes in different tissues showed KAT-type thiolase genes were highly expressed in roots, stems, leaves and spikes, while ACAT-type thiolase genes were specifically expressed at high level in roots and spikes. The relative expression of genes encoding thiolase were significantly up-regulated under drought stress. This study laid a foundation for further understanding the functions of thiolase, as well as breeding new foxtil millet varieties resistant to drought.

  • ZHOU Shuqian, CHEN Lu, CHEN Huiyun, LI Yongxin, CHEN Gang, LU Guoquan, YANG Huqing
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 270-281. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0270
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    This study was aimed to identify the members of alternative oxidase (AOX) gene family in sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.], and characterize their expression patterns in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. Based on genome wide screening and gene cloning and sequencing, three members of AOX gene family were obtained from Xinxiang sweetpotato. The gene structure analysis showed that the cDNA of three AOX genes in sweetpotato were 963 bp, 1080 bp and 1032 bp in length, encoded 320, 359 and 343 amino acids, respectively. Three AOX genes all contained 4 exons and 3 introns, and were named as IbAOX1a (GenBank accession number:MT992313), IbAOX1b (GenBank accession number:MT992314) and IbAOX2 (GenBank accession number:MG450566.1), respectively. Protein homology analysis showed that the protein sequences of IbAOX were very conservative at the C-terminus, only minor differences existed at the N-terminus, and there were special Fe-binding conserved domains of EXXH, FXHR and EEE-Y in the sequences. Subcellular localization prediction showed that IbAOX were mainly located in mitochondria. Protein secondary structure prediction showed that the primary secondary structure of the gene family was α-helix, β-turn, extended chain and irregular coils. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis showed that the expression of IbAOXs gene was tissue-specific. The transcript level of IbAOX1a in leaves was the highest, while IbAOX1b and IbAOX2 were highly expressed in tuberous roots. The expression of IbAOX1a and IbAOX2 in buds were hardly detected. The expression of IbAOX1a and IbAOX1b in seedlings was stimulated under cold, drought and salt stresses. The transcript level of IbAOX1a was significantly higher than that of IbAOX1b in tuberous roots at 4℃, while the expression IbAOX1b in tuberous roots infected by Fusarium solani was markedly higher than that of IbAOX1a. However, the expression of IbAOX2 in sweetpotato seedlings or tuberous root was not altered under various stresses, showing a constitutive expression pattern. This study provides a theoretical basis for studying the functions of AOX genes and breeding sweetpotato varieties with stress resistances.

  • HE Jie, LIANG Shuang, LI Zhong, ZHAO Zhi
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 282-290. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0282
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    In order to identify the pathogen of Lysimachia Christinae caused leaf spot in Shibing County of Guizhou Province and explore the biological resources to control this disease, the pathogenic strain GLHYB was separated and identified by tissue separation and pathogenicity test. Combined with morphology and the sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer (ITS), β-tubulin and elongation factor (EF-1α), the strain was identified as Fusarium solani. To control this disease, an antagonistic bacteria strain X14, with 50% inhibition rate against F. solani, was isolated from the healthy root tuber of Pseudostellaria heterophylla by tissue block culture and flat plate confrontation methods. Subsequently, the X14 was identified as Bacillus subtilis according to its physiological, biochemical characteristics and the sequences of 16S rDNA and gyrA genes. X14 could result in the mycelium deformity and expansion of F. solani, showed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity against four tested pathogenic fungi with the inhibition rate between 50% and 70%. This study provides a potential bacteria for biological control of leaf spot in Lysimachia Christinae.

  • HUANG Xin, FANG Yuanpeng, YUE Ningbo, ZHANG Long, WU Dan, LI Yunzhou
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 291-301. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0291
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    Tomato is the leading industry of modern vegetables, due to its high economic value, it is also an advantageous industry for rural revitalization. However, tomato production has faced a serious threat from Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV). RNA interference (RNAi) is an important antiviral mechanism in plants. Recent studies indicated that double-stranded RNA-binding proteins (DRB) played an important role in the plant RNAi pathway. In order to the identificate of tomato DRB genes defense responses against TYLCV. In this study, bioinformatics methods were used to identify and analyze the basic properties of tomato DRB genes, including the evolutionary tree of DRB gene family, gene structure and gene location, conservative motifs, tissue-specific expression, etc. In addition, real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (Quantitative Real-time PCR, qRT-PCR) technology was used to detect the expression of tomato DRB (SlDRB) gene family after infected with TYLCV. The results showed that tomato contains 8 SlDRB genes, and those 8 members are distributed on six chromosomes, of which 3 SlDRB genes are on chromosome 1. Tomato DRB family can be divided into 3 subfamilies, namely DRB2/3, DRB6/7, DRB1/4/5/8, and the number of introns and protein structure distribution of different subfamilies are different. The subcellular localization results showed that SlDRB1, SlDRB5, SlDRB6, SlDRB7 and SlDRB8 were localized in the extracellular, SlDRB2 and SlDRB3 were localized in the cytoplasm and SlDRB4 in nucleus. More importantly, these SlDRB genes were tissue-specific expressed obviously. The expression level in leaf tissues was relatively moderate, and most genes have the highest expression levels in root, flower, and fruit tissues. The expression level of all SlDRB genes were increased after plants infected with TYLCV. According to the expression trend, these genes can be divided into four categories. The first type of genes, SlDRB7 and SlDRB8, had continually increased expression. The second type of genes SlDRB2 and SlDRB3, the expression of which were up-regulated at 7 days after inoculation(dpi) with TYLCV, and then down-regulated at 14 dpi. The third type of genes SlDRB1 and SlDRB4 were only up-regulated in the 7 dpi. The fourth type of genes SlDRB5 and SlDRB6 were only up-regulated in 14dpi. This study firstly identified 8 SlDRB genes on tomato, and clarified that they are involved in plant antiviral defense response, which laid the foundation for studying the function and role of SlDRB in tomato RNAi antiviral defense

  • WANG Qian, WU Jiahai, CHEN Ying, WANG Xiaoli
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 302-312. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0302
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    TOC1 gene is a major component of the central oscillator, which regulates the response to illumination through photoperiod pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana. In order to illustrate the biological function of FeTOC1 in Festuca elata, we obtained the full-length cDNA sequence of FeTOC1 by homologous cloning, analyzed the expression patterns of FeTOC1 under diverse light levels, and conducted the subcellular localization of FeTOC1. The results indicated that the full-length of FeTOC1 was 1 557 bp, encoding 517 amino acid residues; the ended protein FeTOC1 contained the pseudo-receiver domain of about 120 amino acids at N-terminus and the short CCT motif of about 50 amino acids at C-terminus; the phylogenetic tree analysis showed that FeTOC1 had close relations to those in barley, wheat and coarse goat grass, which were up to 99%. Then, the constructed target protein was fused with the GFP expression vector, and injected into tobacco, the expression suggested that FeTOC1 was mainly located in the nucleus. Real-time fluorescence quantitative analysis of the expression patterns of FeTOC1 in leaves revealed that the expression of FeTOC1 had a diurnal rhythm under both long- and short-day, and the expression at illumination 0~4 h reached the highest; compared with continuous darkness, continuous illumination weakened the oscillatory rhythm of FeTOC1 dramatically; reversing the circadian rhythm, FeTOC1 was preferentially regulated by environmental signal. To sum up, FeTOC1 gene played an important role in circadian clock regulation in tall fescue.

  • ZHONG Huaiqin, KONG Lan, FAN Ronghui, FANG Nengyan, LIN Rongyan, LIN Bing
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 313-321. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0313
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    Monoterpene compounds are the main aromatic constituents in scented Oncidium. In order to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying monoterpene biosynthesis in Oncidium Twinkle Red Fantasy, a terpene synthase gene (OnTPS) was cloned base on transcriptome sequencing. Molecular characteristic and expression pattern of OnTPS were investigated by using bioinformatics and quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that OnTPS contained an open reading frame (ORF) of 1 797 bp, encoding a protein of 598 amino acids. OnTPS contained conserved RRx8W, DDXXD and XDLGTSXXE motifs and had 68% homology with α-terpineol synthase and myrcene synthase from Dendrobium candidum, belonging to TPSb subfamily. Subcellular localization analysis showed that OnTPS were localized in plastid. qRT-PCR analysis showed that OnTPS was highly expressed in sepal and petal of Oncidium Twinkle Red Fantasy. During the florescence, OnTPS had the highest expression in the blooming period with a significant circadian rhythm of rise in daytime and fall in the nigh. And OnTPS had a higher expression in Oncidium Twinkle varieties compared to others. The overexpression vector of OnTPS was constructed and successfully expressed in callus. This study provides a theoretical reference for further study on the function of OnTPS and floral fragrance genetic improvement of Oncidium.

  • DANG Wei, LI Xi, YE Gefei, WANG Haiyan, ZHANG Yuning, YANG Tiezhao, WU Zhaoyun, YANG Huijuan
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 322-328. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0322
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    In order to explore the effect of deletion of NRE2 in nitrate reductase gene promoter on nitrogen metabolism in tobacco plants, CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing technology was used to obtain mutant materials with deletion of NRE2 in NIA1 and NIA2 gene promoters of tobacco by using flue-cured tobacco variety K326 as material. All materials were cultured under the same nitrogen nutrient conditions and the physiological indicators related to nitrogen metabolism of tobacco plants were measured. Results showed that compared with the wild type, the nitrate reductase activity in the leaves of the single and double mutants was decreased by 18.1~25.6 percent, the NO3- content was decreased by 1.5%~4.3%, while the nitrite reductase activity and NO2- content remained at a high level; the total nitrogen content of the single knockout mutant was not significantly different from that of the wild type, but the total nitrogen content of the double knockout mutant was significantly reduced by 0.88 percent. This study provided theoretical basis for further understanding of nitrate regulatory network and breeding new tobacco varieties with low nitrate accumulation.

  • LIU Lingling, AN Congcong, YE Ximiao, YUAN Jianlong, WANG Yuping, ZHANG Feng
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 329-340. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0329
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    Yield traits are complex agronomic traits, which are composed of multiple yield components. The aim of this study is to analyze the correlation among apical dominance, number of main stem and yield components of potato tuber, which would provide basis for potato breeding and cultivation mode selection. The potato tuber sprouting was screened in 102 advanced lines from The International Potato Center. Twelve representative potato lines with different apical dominance were used as materials in this study. The number of main stem was investigated during bloom period. The plot yield, plot yield of large tuber, plot yield of small tuber, yield of tuber per plant, yield of large tuber per plant, yield of small tuber per plant, number of tuber per plant, number of large tuber per plant and number of small tuber per plant were investigated during harvest period. The bud eye number, sprouting number and sprouting length of tubers were measured during storage period. The correlation among apical dominance, number of main stem and yield components of potato tuber were analyzed. The result showed that 12 potato lines were divided into four types based on the feature of tuber sprouting. There were significant differences in sprouting rate among four different tuber apical dominance types. There was no significant difference in sprouting length among four different tuber apical dominance types on the 90th day. The number of main stem, plot yield, plot yield of large tuber, yield of tuber per plant, yield of large tuber per plant, yield of small tuber per plant, number of tuber per plant, number of large tuber per plant and number of small tuber per plant were significantly different among four different tuber apical dominance types. However, there was no significant difference in the plot yield of small tuber. Variance analysis showed that the tuber apical dominance has significant effect on the number of main stem, yield of small tuber per plant, number of tuber per plant, number of large tuber per plant and number of small tuber per plant. Correlation analysis indicated that there was no significant correlation between number of main stem and yield components such as number of tuber per plant. Studying the correlation among potato yield components is important for breeding varieties with different tuberization characteristics, selection of cultivation modes in production, improvement of field management efficiency and yield increasing.

  • Food Irradiation·Food Science
  • JIANG Qian, LIU Jianxue, LI Peiyan, BAI Yulan, LI Xuan, XU Baocheng, LUO Denglin, GUO Jinying
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 341-349. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0341
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    To investigate the effect of microwave irradiation treatment on the volatile compounds in Luzhou flavor liquor, gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) was used to analyze the volatile components in liquor samples under different microwave radiation treatments. The results showed that the type and proportion of volatile compounds in fresh liquor were the most close to that of four-year intermediate liquor when the microwave radiation temperature was 45℃, the microwave radiation time was 80 min and the microwave radiation power was 500 W. Compared with the fresh liquor, the ester content of the best microwave radiation liquor and the four-year intermediate liquor increased by 31.20% and 21.57%, the alcohol content decreased by 21.99% and 47.64%, the aldehyde content decreased by 14.18% and 9.00%, and the acid content decreased by 18.07% and 22.90%, the results showed that the effect of microwave irradiation on aging liquor was consistent with that of natural aging. This study provided a theoretical support and practical basis for the microwave irradiation treatment on the liquor aging.

  • LAI Pufu, WENG Minjie, TANG Baosha, LI Yibin, WU Li, CHEN Junchen
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 350-361. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0350
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    In order to explore the influence of different drying methods on the rehydration and quality characteristics of Hypsizygus marmoreus,vacuum freeze-drying without heating, heating vacuum freeze drying, heat pump drying, heat air drying were adopted to dry Hypsizygus marmoreus. Combined with the texture parameters and the rehydration rate,the moisture migration and distribution law of the dried squid were analyzed by low-field nuclear magnetic resonance(LF-NMR) during dry rehydration,and the correlation between LF-NMR parameters and texture parameters, and rehydration ratio were analyzed to construct the predicted mode by linear regression analysis.The results showed that three water components of combined water, immobilized water and free water were observed in dried Hypsizygus marmoreus during the rehydrated process. The content of immobilized water and free water increased significantly while the change of combined water is little as the extension of the rehydration time. The rehydration characteristics of vacuum freeze-drying were the best and hot-air drying were the worst.The hardness and chewiness of vacuum freeze-drying were lower than those of the hot-air drying and heat pump drying.There was significant effect of different drying methods on the rehydration and quality characteristics of Hypsizygus marmoreus. Vacuum freeze-drying technology were conducive to the drying of Hypsizygus marmoreus. The results can provide insightful basis for the prediction model of rehydration and quality characteristics in the Hypsizygus marmoreus using different drying methods with LF-NMR.

  • LING Jiangang, DUAN Yuquan, AN Shengmin, LIN Qiong, ZHU Lin, LIU Donghong
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 362-368. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0362
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    In order to explore the effects of exogenous nitric oxide (NO) combined with 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) treatment on the storage quality and reactive oxygen metabolism of juicy peaches, the Hujingmilu juicy peaches were treated with 0.5 μL·L-1 1-MCP、25 μmol·L-1 sodium nitroprusside separately and in combination stored at (28±2)℃ for 7 days. The results showed that (NO+1-MCP) treatment could reduce the accumulation of superoxide anion ($O_{2}^{-\cdot }$) production and peroxide (H2O2) content, decrease relative electrical conductivity and malondialdehyde (MDA) content, maintain the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and delay fruit firmness and vitamin C (Vc) content decrease, which could consequently prolong the shelf-life of peaches. It also showed that the (NO+1-MCP) treatment had better preservative effect than NO and 1-MCP treatment separately (P<0.05). This study provides theoretical basis for applying new preservation technology to prolong the shelf-life of juicy peaches at room temperature.

  • DIAO Yihan, LI Mingyi, BI Yanhong, DU Wenying, YANG Rongling, WANG Zhaoyu
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 369-375. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0369
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    To establish a green and efficient synthesis of the undecenoyl-polydatin double prodrug Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase(TLL) was used as the catalyst for the first time. Some crucial factors such as the optimal reaction medium, molar ratio of polydatin to vinyl undecenoate, reaction temperature and time were investigated to characterize the behavior of the catalytic procedure. The results revealed that the immobilized TLL showed the highest regioselectivity towards the 6″-OH (100%) in acetone and the dominant product was proved to be 6″-monoester. Under the optimal conditions, the reaction rate, substrate conversion and 6″-regioselectivity were 20.8 mmol·L -1·h-1, 100%, and 100%, respectively. However, the kinetic characteristics of the TLL enzyme in different organic media were significantly different for the acylation of polydatin. The minimum Km and the maximum Vmax and Vmax/Km obtained in acetone were 24.7 mmol·L -1, 68.9 mmol·L-1·h-1, and 2.79 h-1, respectively. It indicated that the enzyme exerted an extremely higher affinity for the substrate and catalytic efficiency in acetone as compared to other organic solvents, which was the suitable solvent for the enzymatic reaction. This study not only enriched the knowledge of nonaqueous fundamental enzymology, but also provide reference for changing traditional chemical synthesis processes using more green and efficient enzyme catalytic technology.

  • LIN Xinjian, XIA Xudong, QI Xiangyang, YANG Zhenfeng, CHEN Qiuping
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 376-383. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0376
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    In order to explore the effects of digestion on the active components of oiltea camellia in vitro, Oiltea Camellia fruit hull was used as the raw material, α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of oiltea camellia extract, aqueous phase, n-butanol phase and ethyl acetate phase were analyzed during in vitro digestion. Furthermore, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and molecular docking were used to explore the α-glucosidase inhibitors in oiltea camellia. The results showed that the IC50 values of oiltea camellia extracts, ethyl acetate phase, n-butanol phase and water phase on α-glucosidase were 0.27~1.17 μg·mL-1. After simulated digestion in vitro, the IC50 values increased to 0.34~2.36 μg·mL-1, and the inhibitory activity of ethyl acetate phase was the strongest. Composition analysis showed that in vitro digestion could affect the total phenol content of the extracts, and the ethyl acetate phase had the highest total phenol content (44.49 μg·mL-1) and had good stability during digestion. Composition-activity analysis showed that five compounds in oiltea camellia extracts were correlated with the IC50 values of α-glucosidase, including 3-O-methylellagic acid-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (MEAG). The results of AutoDock molecular docking also showed that MEAG had a good α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, with the best binding energy of -7.99 kcal·mol-1 and estimated inhibition constant of 1.40 μmol·L-1, which interacted with the amino acid residues of α-glucosidase through hydrogen bond force and hydrophobic forces. This study provided a theoretical basis for the development of new α-glucosidase inhibitors and utilization of Oiltea Camellia.

  • ZHAO Ling, CAO Rong, LIU Qi, GAO Fengtao, HU Mengyue
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 384-391. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0384
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    In order to scientifically evaluate the nutritional quality and flavor differences of the muscles in different parts of Oncorhynchus kisutch, the back and abdomen muscles were used as raw materials, and the nutritional characteristics were analyzed by measuring the basic nutritional components, amino acids and fatty acids compositions. GC-IMS were used to analyze the characteristic flavor of different muscles. The results showed that there were significant differences in the nutritional composition between the back and abdomen muscles of Oncorhynchus kisutch, except crude ash. The crude fat content of the abdominal muscles was as high as 10.93 g·100 g-1, which was 2.75 times of the back, while the crude protein and moisture content of the abdomen muscles was significantly lower than that of the back. The total amount of amino acids in the back and abdomen muscles were 59.78 and 44.83 g·100 g-1, respectively. The proportion of essential amino acids exceeded 40%, which met the ideal model of protein nutrition evaluation recommended by FAO/WHO. The total amount of flavor amino acids in the back and abdomen muscles were 23.23 and 17.65 g·100 g-1, respectively. Muscles of the two parts were rich in fatty acids. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids was the highest, accounted for 70.1% and 71.2%, respectively. The ratio of Σn-6PUFA and Σn-3PUFA was 0.78 and 1.22, respectively, far lower than the WHO/FAO recommended standard (4-6). A total of 33 volatile components had been isolated and identified including ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, alkanes, and sulfur-containing compounds. There were significant differences in the content of volatile flavor substances in the back and abdominal muscles. The study would provide scientific basis for the deep processing and comprehensive utilization of Oncorhynchus kisutch.

  • HOU Fuyun, CHEN Guiling, DONG Shunxu, XIE Beitao, QIN Zhen, LI Aixian, ZHANG Liming, WANG Qingmei
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 392-401. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0392
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    To explore the relationship of starch characteristics and their noodle quality from different sweetpotato varieties, three cultivars cv. Jishu25, Jishu26 and Shangshu19 were selected for experiments in hilly mountains. After harvest, root dry matter content, storage root yield and starch separation were measured, and then the starch components, aging and pasting characteristics and their noodle quality were analyzed. The results showed that the root dry yield of cv. Jishu25 was significantly higher than those of the other two cultivars(P<0.05), and the starch crystal structure and morphology were similar in the three varieties. The starch content, composition and pasting characteristics in the three varieties were different. The ash and protein content, final viscosity and setback viscosity value of Jishu25 starch were higher than those of the other two varieties. The amylose, phosphorus, and crude fiber content of Shangshu19 starch were the highest one in the three varieties. Textural analysis showed that the hardness, tensile strength and cutting behaviors of starch cooked noodles in Jishu 25 were better than those of Shangshu 19 and Jishu 26. The correlation analysis showed that the amylase/amylopectin value was positively correlated with the hardness, tensile strength and cutting behavior, while starch peak viscosity, final viscosity and setback viscosity were negatively correlated with the hardness of noodles. Therefore, the selected sweetpotato variety Jishu 25 is more suitable for noodle processing, and suitable for planting in hilly mountainous areas, which not only promotes the sustainable development of sweetpotato industry in hilly mountainous areas, but also provides variety support for the sweetpotato industry to drive the revitalization and development of rural areas.

  • TIAN Gengzhi, BAI Xinming, LIU Xiaoqing, SHAN Jihao, WANG Qingdong
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 402-413. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0402
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    To understand the quality and safety situation and exposure risk of vegetables,fruits and edible fungus samples in the main production areas of northwest China (Pingliang, Gansu Province, China) were collected from 2018 to 2020, and the residues of 46 pesticides in 2 435 vegetables, fruits and edible fungus samples were determined. The distribution and correlation of pesticide residues in 9 kinds of vegetables, fruits and edible fungus were analyzed by a risk assessment method. The application risk ranking, exposure risk, early warning risk and acute and chronic dietary risk assessment of pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits were also carried out. The results showed that 34 samples were unqualified with the failure rate of 1.40%. Among the 2 435 samples, 435 samples, 28 kinds of pesticide residues were detected, and the positive rate of the sample was 17.86%. By risk ranking method, there were 7 kinds of high risk pesticides, including monocrotophos, biphenthrin, methamidophos, carboweiser, oxomethoate, paramycin and deltamethrin, 6 kinds of medium risk pesticides including chlorpyrofos, cypermethrin, profenophoron, fipronil, acetamiprid and fenprothrin, 4 kinds of low-risk pesticides and 11 kinds of very low-risk pesticides. The ARfD value of Fenpropathrin was 160.07% (> 100%), indicating its acute dietary risk was unacceptable. The acute dietary risk of the remaining 27 pesticide residues was acceptable, and the ADI values of the chronic dietary risk of the 28 pesticide residues were all below 100%, meaning the chronic dietary risk was acceptable. This study provides a reference for the risk monitoring of pesticides in vegetables, fruits and edible fungus in northwest China.

  • BI Jinfeng, FENG Shuhan, JIN Xin, YI Jianyong, LI Xuan, LYU Jian, WU Xinye
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 414-421. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0414
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    With the continuous development of economy and science technology in China, freeze-drying (FD) technology, as an efficient drying technology that can effectively maintain the cellular structure, functional components, color, flavor, and nutrition of food, has received great attention from the food industry. In recent years, FD has been rapidly and widely applied in the precise design and manufacture of nutritious and healthy foods. This article summarizes the history, current situation as well as development trend of FD technology, equipment and products from the view food technology and industry, which may provide references for its potential application in food industry.

  • Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology
  • BAN Wenhui, WANG Xingqiang, LIU Qiangjuan, SUN Jianbo, LYU Kaiyuan, KANG Jianhong
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 422-434. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0422
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    An experiment was conducted in Haiyuan County in the Ningnan mountains of Ningxia, from 2019 to 2020, to determine the effects of different nitrogen application rate on starch synthase, starch content and yield of potato tubers after high temperature stress with the tested variety of Qingshu 9. In the field, a high-temperature environment was constructed by building a high-temperature shed. There were two temperature treatments (T1: high-temperature stress at the initial stage of tuber formation, T2: natural temperature), and four nitrogen levels (no nitrogen NO: 0 kg·hm-2, low nitrogen level N1: 75 kg·hm-2, conventional nitrogen level N2: 150 kg·hm-2, and high nitrogen level N3: 225 kg·hm-2). The contents of amylopectin, amylose and total starch in potato tubers were determined, and the activities and yields of ADPG pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), UDPG pyrophosphorylase (UGPase), starch branching enzyme (SBE), soluble starch synthase (SSS), bound starch synthase (GBSS) in potato tubers were measured to clarify the interaction between nitrogen fertilization and temperature. The results showed that the yield reduction rates under different nitrogen levels ranged from 3.03% to 10.35%, among which the yield under N2 treatment was the lowest, and the yields under normal temperature treatment and high temperature stress were 43.95 t·hm-2 and 41.54 t·hm-2, respectively. Meanwhile, the decrease rates of amylose, amylopectin and total starch content were distributed in 8.84%~17.71%, 13.44%~25.67% and 12.77%~23.90%, respectively, under different nitrogen levels, and the size relationship among treatments was N2>N3>N1>N0. This is also consistent with the activity of starch synthase. At the same time, this study also found that under high temperature stress, the starch synthase activity of N0 and N1 treatments decreased more than that of N2 and N3 treatments. Under the experimental conditions, the nitrogen application rate of 150 kg·hm-2 can maintain the high activity of starch synthase after high temperature stress, and significantly reduce the decline of starch content, so that potatoes can maintain high starch synthesis ability, thus reducing the loss of yield and ensuring economic benefits. The results of this study investigated the effect of moderate nitrogen application on the mitigation of high temperature stress in potatoes, clarified the mechanism of mitigation, and provided a theoretical basis for stress-resistant and high-yielding potato cultivation.

  • DONG Fei, LI Feng, JIA Yaqin, YANG Feng, YAN Qiuyan, LU Jinxiu, SHEN Yanting
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 435-444. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0435
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    In order to estimate the effect of nitrogen topdressing rate on grain yield and quality of different black-grained wheat varieties(strains), a field experiment was conducted using a split plot design. Eleven black-grained wheat varieties(strains) were used in the main plot, and the sub-plot were nitrogen topdressing rates with four levels of 0 (N0, control), 34.5 (N1), 51.8 (N2), 69.0 (N3) kg·hm-2. The SPAD value of flag leaf was measured in filling stage; grain yield, yield components, grain nitrogen content and grain quality were determined in maturity stage. Results showed that nitrogen topdressing was beneficial to increase the SPAD value of flag leaf, the highest SPAD value of B145-2, L10056 and L10058 were obtained under N1 treatment, while the SPAD values of the other 8 other varieties(strains) were increased with the increase of nitrogen topdressing rate. Nitrogen topdressing was also beneficial to increase yield of black-grained wheat, and the yield increased by 15.2% to 99.7%, 17.5% to 80.9% and 0.7% to 69.9%, under N1, N2 and N3 treatments, respectively. The optimum rate of nitrogen topdressing to obtain the highest yield were various among varieties. The grain yield of L10056, B120-2 and Yunhei 14207 increased with the increasing of nitrogen dressing rate; the highest grain yield of B145-2 and L10058 were obtained under N2 treatment, and 6 other varieties(strains) had the highest grain yield under N1 treatment. Correlation analysis showed that the increase of yield was mainly attributed to the increase of kernel per spike. Nitrogen topdressing rate, variety and their interaction had extremely significant effects on the yield and its components. Nitrogen topdressing could increase grain nitrogen content of most black-grained wheat varieties, of which B145-2, L10058 and Yunhei 14207 had the highest nitrogen content under N2 treatment, and 18 jian 46, Linhei 131, Donhei 1, Linhei 187, 2002-4 and Yunhei 161 had the highest nitrogen content under N1 treatment. Correlation analysis showed that nitrogen topdressing rate was positively correlated to the grain yield, nitrogen content and protein content (the correlation was not significant). A significant negative correlation was found between yield and protein content, and other quality indexes. Considering the yield and quality characteristics, nitrogen topdressing rate between 34.5 kg·hm-2 and 51.8 kg·hm-2 was more suitable to black-grained wheat. The results of this study can provide reference forrational application of nitrogen fertilizer in black-grained wheat.

  • LI Yulin, XU Chengyu, HU Xue, ZANG Qian, LU Xuanrui, JIANG Min, ZHUANG Hengyang, HUANG Lifen
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 445-455. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0445
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    In order to explore the effects of organic cultivation on soil nutrients in paddy fields and the formation of yields and qualities for different palatability types of rice. Based on good palatability and high yield japonica rice (Nanjing 46 and Suxiangjing 100) and medium palatability and high yield japonica rice (Changnongjing 8 and Huaixiangjing 15) with organic and conventional cultivation modes, we studied soil nutrient content at 0 to 10 cm and 10 to 20 cm,yields and qualities for different palatability types of japonica rice varieties in the key growth periods (tillering period, heading period, grain filling period and maturity period). Our results indicated that the content of available phosphorus and potassium at 0 to 10 cm and 10 to 20 cm shown a trend of conventional cultivation less than organic cultivation from the tillering stage to the maturity stage. The content of alkaline hydrolysis nitrogen and organic matter at 0 to 10 cm and 10 to 20 cm under organic cultivation were significantly higher than that under conventional cultivation in all growth periods except for maturity stage. Compared with conventional cultivation, organic cultivation reduced ear number of two rice varieties, with a decrease of about 20%, but increased the amount of grains per ear of good palatability and high yield japonica rice by 5.60% and 6.35%, while decreased that of medium palatability and high yield japonica rice by 2.17% and 2.52%, respectively. Moreover, path analysis showed that cultivation modes and varieties both had negative effects on ear number, with the greatest impact from cultivation modes, while varieties had the greatest impact on 1000-grain weight and seed setting rate. In addition, organic cultivation significantly improved the appearance quality, palatability quality and RVA profile characteristic values of the two rice varieties. Correlation analysis demonstrated that soil alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen content was significantly and negatively correlated with amylose content, whilst positively correlated with protein content. Furthermore, soil available phosphorus and available potassium content were both significantly and negatively correlated with amylose content and protein content. Overall, results had great importance for optimizing rice organic cultivation techniques and improving rice yields and qualities.

  • WANG Zhongtang, SHA Jianchuan, XIE Xiaofeng, MENG Xiaoye, ZHAO Dengchao, PENG Ling, ZHANG Qiong
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 456-465. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0456
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    In order to clarify the effects of planting hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth.) in jujube garden on soil nutrients and bacterial community, a field experiment carried out with a five-year old Jinsi 4 was used to study the effect of basic physical and chemical indexes and bacterial community of soil under different grasses cultivation (bare earth, natural grass, hairy vetch). The main results were as follows: compared with bare earth (control), the grass cultivation increased the contents of water content, total nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and organic matter of soil, and reduced the pH value, salt content and bulk density of soil. Furthermore, the grass cultivation significantly increased the activities of soil urease, sucrase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and protease, and the highest values were in hairy vetch treatment. Illumina HiSeq high-throughput sequencing results showed that Proteobacteria, Actinobacteriota and Acidobacteriota were dominant bacteria populations at phylum level whose relative abundances ranged from 42.4% to 76.0%. In addition, γ proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacilli and α proteobacteria were dominant bacteria populations at class level with relative abundances ranging from 31.2% to 68.0%. The α diversity analysis showed that hairy vetch treatment could increase the abundances, population abundances and diversity indices of soil bacterial communities compared with the bacterial communities of bare earth and natural grass. The analysis of β diversity manifested that there were considerable differences in the bacterial community phylogenetic compositions between grass cultivation and bare earth. The results of RDA analysis showed that there were correlations between the relative abundances of soil bacterial communities and soil nutrients and enzyme activities under different grass treatments. The above results indicated that planting hairy vetch in Chinese jujube orchard had positive effects on the soil fertility, fruit quality, bacterial community structure and diversity. This study provides a theoretical basis for the promotion and application of planting hairy vetch in Chinese jujube orchards.

  • WANG Huili, ZHENG Xiaodong
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 466-472. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0466
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    The seedlings of cherry tomato Hangza No.5 cultivar were chosen to inoculate the root endophytic fungus, Piriformospora indica (P. indica) in pot culture under greenhouse to study the effects of P. indica inoculation on the total yield, fruit quality and postharvest disease resistance. The total yield, natural decay rate, resistance to the pathogen and quality changes during storage were determined when the fruit reached maturity. The results showed that P. indica inoculation had no significant effect on the total yield of cherry tomatoes, but it could improve the fruit quality,including increasing the content of soluble protein and vitamin C in fruit by 0.03 mg·g-1and 3.9 mg·100g-1, respectively. Meanwhile, it could delay the decrease of fruit firmness, vitamin C and soluble protein content during storage, as well as increase postharvest disease resistance of the fruits. The incidence of natural decay, black spot and gray mold decreased by 25.0, 20.0 and 17.5 points compared with the control, respectively. The possible mechanism of disease resistance in the fruit induced by P. indica inoculation at seedling stage include improving the postharvest fruit quality, reducing the softening rate of the fruit, and then delaying the process of fruit maturation and senescence, and activating resistance-related enzymatic activity, peroxidase(POD) and polyphenol oxidase(PPO) activity mainly, during storage. These results offer a theoretical basis for the application of P.indica in the production of cherry tomato.

  • WANG Qingbin, LIU Zhiguo, PENG Chun'e, MENG Hui, ZHAO Hongling, WANG Hongfeng, ZHANG Min
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 473-480. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0473
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    In this study, to reveal the mechanism of Paecilomyces variotii extract (ZNC) induced pakchoi (Brassica campestris L.) resistance to low-temperature stress, a pakchoi cultivar named Yellow seedlings was used to study the effects on pakchoi growth treated with different concentrations of ZNC (20, 30 and 40 ng·mL-1). The results showed that all the concentrations of ZNC increased SPAD value, plant height and fresh weight of pakchoi significantly at low temperature compared with water treatment. The enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) in pakchoi leaves were also improved, while hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation were decreased by using ZNC. Besides, ZNC could increase the contents of soluble protein and proline by up-regulating the expression level of cold-resistant related genes BrCBF and BrCOR14 in pakchoi. The contents of GA and IAA in pakchoi were also significantly increased after ZNC treatment, while the content of ABA was decreased. These results indicated that ZNC enhanced pakchoi resistance to low-temperature stress through reducing the cell membrane oxidative damage, keeping the cell structure stable by increasing osmotic adjustment substances accumulation, and promoting the growth of the pakchoi by improving the ratio of (GA+IAA)/ABA. Hence, this study provides an effective means to reduce the harm of low temperature to pakchoi and other vegetables.

  • SHENG Kuichuan, YANG Shengmao
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2022, 36(2): 481-487. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0481
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    The Chinese expression of the terminology “biochar” has created arguments in academic world for many years. This paper looks insight into the concept of biochar and analyzes the confusion nomenclature phenomena, based on the basic method of logistics on concept, phrases, definition and classification. By clarifying the logic problems on the definition and classification of biochar, this work established good practice for the in-depth understanding of biochar terminology, and promoting the spread of the related scientific knowledge and the application of the technological achievements.