Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences ›› 2022, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (2): 384-391.DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0384

• Food Irradiation·Food Science • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Nutritional Evaluation and Characteristic Flavor Analysis of Different Muscle Parts of Oncorhynchus kisutch

ZHAO Ling1(), CAO Rong1, LIU Qi1,*(), GAO Fengtao2,*(), HU Mengyue1   

  1. 1Yellow Sea Fisheries Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences, Qingdao, Shangdong 266071
    2Weifang University, Weifang, Shandong 261061
  • Received:2021-01-18 Accepted:2021-03-16 Online:2022-02-10 Published:2022-01-17
  • Contact: LIU Qi, GAO Fengtao

银鲑不同部位肌肉的营养评价与特征风味分析

赵玲1(), 曹荣1, 刘淇1,*(), 高峰涛2,*(), 胡梦月1   

  1. 1中国水产科学研究院黄海水产研究所,山东 青岛 266071
    2潍坊学院, 山东 潍坊 261061
  • 通讯作者: 刘淇,高峰涛
  • 作者简介:赵玲,女,助理研究员,主要从事水产品加工与高值化研究。E-mail: zhaoling@ysfri.ac.cn
  • 基金资助:
    山东省重点研发计划项目(2018CXGC0102);潍坊市科学技术发展计划(2020GX013);潍坊学院博士基金(2020BS21)

Abstract:

In order to scientifically evaluate the nutritional quality and flavor differences of the muscles in different parts of Oncorhynchus kisutch, the back and abdomen muscles were used as raw materials, and the nutritional characteristics were analyzed by measuring the basic nutritional components, amino acids and fatty acids compositions. GC-IMS were used to analyze the characteristic flavor of different muscles. The results showed that there were significant differences in the nutritional composition between the back and abdomen muscles of Oncorhynchus kisutch, except crude ash. The crude fat content of the abdominal muscles was as high as 10.93 g·100 g-1, which was 2.75 times of the back, while the crude protein and moisture content of the abdomen muscles was significantly lower than that of the back. The total amount of amino acids in the back and abdomen muscles were 59.78 and 44.83 g·100 g-1, respectively. The proportion of essential amino acids exceeded 40%, which met the ideal model of protein nutrition evaluation recommended by FAO/WHO. The total amount of flavor amino acids in the back and abdomen muscles were 23.23 and 17.65 g·100 g-1, respectively. Muscles of the two parts were rich in fatty acids. The ratio of polyunsaturated fatty acids was the highest, accounted for 70.1% and 71.2%, respectively. The ratio of Σn-6PUFA and Σn-3PUFA was 0.78 and 1.22, respectively, far lower than the WHO/FAO recommended standard (4-6). A total of 33 volatile components had been isolated and identified including ketones, aldehydes, alcohols, esters, alkanes, and sulfur-containing compounds. There were significant differences in the content of volatile flavor substances in the back and abdominal muscles. The study would provide scientific basis for the deep processing and comprehensive utilization of Oncorhynchus kisutch.

Key words: Oncorhynchus kisutch, different parts, nutritional quality, flavor

摘要:

为科学评价银鲑不同部位肌肉的营养品质及风味差异,本试验以银鲑背部和腹部肌肉为原料,通过测定银鲑不同部位肌肉的基本营养成分、氨基酸和脂肪酸组成,分析其营养学特征;采用气相离子迁移谱仪(GC-IMS)分析不同部位肌肉的特征风味。结果表明,除灰分外,银鲑背部和腹部肌肉的营养组成存在显著差异,腹部肌肉粗脂肪含量高达10.93 g·100 g-1,是背部的2.75倍,而腹部肌肉的粗蛋白和水分含量则显著低于背部。背部和腹部肌肉氨基酸总量分别为59.78和44.83 g·100g-1,必需氨基酸比例均在40%以上,符合FAO/WHO推荐的蛋白质营养评价的理想模式。背部和腹部肌肉鲜味氨基酸总量分别为23.23和17.65 g·100g-1。2个部位肌肉含有种类丰富的脂肪酸,其中多不饱和脂肪酸含量最高,分别为70.1%和71.2%;背部和腹部Σn-6PUFA与Σn-3PUFA的比值为分别为0.78和1.22,远低于WHO/FAO建议的标准(4~6)。共分离鉴定出酮类、醛类、醇类、酯类、烷烯烃以及含硫化合物等33种挥发性成分,银鲑背部和腹部肌肉挥发性风味物质组成和含量差异明显。本研究结果为银鲑的精深加工与综合利用提供了科学依据。

关键词: 银鲑, 不同部位, 营养品质, 风味