Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences ›› 2022, Vol. 36 ›› Issue (2): 445-455.DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0445

• Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Soil Nutrient Characteristics of Organic and Conventional Fertilization Models and Effects on Yields and Qualities of Japonica Rice of Different Palatability Types

LI Yulin1,2(), XU Chengyu1,2, HU Xue1,2, ZANG Qian1,2, LU Xuanrui1,2, JIANG Min1,2, ZHUANG Hengyang1,2, HUANG Lifen1,2,*()   

  1. 1Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Physiology/Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Crop Cultivation and Physiology, Agricultural College of Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009
    2Jiangsu Co-Innovation Center for Modern Production Technology of Grain Crops, Yangzhou University, Yangzhou, Jiangsu 225009
  • Received:2021-04-07 Accepted:2021-05-27 Online:2022-02-10 Published:2022-01-17
  • Contact: HUANG Lifen

有机和常规施肥模式的土壤养分特征及对不同食味型粳稻产量和品质的影响

李玉林1,2(), 徐承昱1,2, 胡雪1,2, 臧倩1,2, 陆炫睿1,2, 蒋敏1,2, 庄恒扬1,2, 黄丽芬1,2,*()   

  1. 1扬州大学农学院,江苏省作物遗传生理重点实验室/江苏省作物栽培生理重点实验室,江苏 扬州 225009
    2扬州大学,江苏省粮食作物现代产业技术协同创新中心,江苏 扬州 225009
  • 通讯作者: 黄丽芬
  • 作者简介:李玉林,男,主要从事作物栽培学与耕作学研究。E-mail: 1812102559@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划“粮食丰产增效科技创新”重点专项2017年度项目(2017YFD0300102);江苏省2019年度省级现代农业发展项目(2019-SJ-039-08-11);国家自然科学基金青年基金项目(31801310)

Abstract:

In order to explore the effects of organic cultivation on soil nutrients in paddy fields and the formation of yields and qualities for different palatability types of rice. Based on good palatability and high yield japonica rice (Nanjing 46 and Suxiangjing 100) and medium palatability and high yield japonica rice (Changnongjing 8 and Huaixiangjing 15) with organic and conventional cultivation modes, we studied soil nutrient content at 0 to 10 cm and 10 to 20 cm,yields and qualities for different palatability types of japonica rice varieties in the key growth periods (tillering period, heading period, grain filling period and maturity period). Our results indicated that the content of available phosphorus and potassium at 0 to 10 cm and 10 to 20 cm shown a trend of conventional cultivation less than organic cultivation from the tillering stage to the maturity stage. The content of alkaline hydrolysis nitrogen and organic matter at 0 to 10 cm and 10 to 20 cm under organic cultivation were significantly higher than that under conventional cultivation in all growth periods except for maturity stage. Compared with conventional cultivation, organic cultivation reduced ear number of two rice varieties, with a decrease of about 20%, but increased the amount of grains per ear of good palatability and high yield japonica rice by 5.60% and 6.35%, while decreased that of medium palatability and high yield japonica rice by 2.17% and 2.52%, respectively. Moreover, path analysis showed that cultivation modes and varieties both had negative effects on ear number, with the greatest impact from cultivation modes, while varieties had the greatest impact on 1000-grain weight and seed setting rate. In addition, organic cultivation significantly improved the appearance quality, palatability quality and RVA profile characteristic values of the two rice varieties. Correlation analysis demonstrated that soil alkaline hydrolyzed nitrogen content was significantly and negatively correlated with amylose content, whilst positively correlated with protein content. Furthermore, soil available phosphorus and available potassium content were both significantly and negatively correlated with amylose content and protein content. Overall, results had great importance for optimizing rice organic cultivation techniques and improving rice yields and qualities.

Key words: organic cultivation, conventional cultivation, soil nutrient, yield, quality

摘要:

为探究有机栽培对稻田土壤养分及不同食味型水稻产量和品质形成的影响,本研究以味优高产型粳稻(南粳46和苏香粳100)和味中高产型粳稻(常农粳8号和淮香粳15号)为材料,设置有机和常规2种栽培模式,对多个关键生育期(分蘖期、抽穗期、灌浆结实期和成熟期)的0~10 cm和10~20 cm土层养分含量及不同食味型粳稻的产量和品质进行比较。结果表明,分蘖期到成熟期,0~10 cm和10~20 cm土层速效磷和速效钾含量均表现为常规栽培<有机栽培;除成熟期外,有机栽培下0~10 cm和10~20 cm土层碱解氮和有机质含量在各生育时期均显著大于常规栽培。有机栽培较常规栽培降低了2种食味型粳稻的穗数,降幅均为20%左右,但提高了味中高产粳稻每穗粒数,分别提高了5.60%和6.35%,并降低了味优高产粳稻每穗粒数,分别降低了2.17%和2.52%。通径分析表明,栽培方式和品种对穗数均表现为负效应,其中栽培方式影响最大,品种较栽培方式对千粒重和结实率的影响最大。另外,有机栽培显著改善了2种食味型粳稻的外观品质、食味品质和RVA谱特征值。相关性分析表明,土壤碱解氮含量与直链淀粉含量呈显著负相关、与蛋白质含量呈显著正相关;而速效磷和速效钾含量均与直链淀粉和蛋白质含量呈显著负相关。本研究结果为优化水稻有机栽培技术、提高稻米的产量和品质提供了理论依据。

关键词: 有机栽培, 常规栽培, 土壤养分, 产量, 品质