10 May 2021, Volume 35 Issue 5

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    Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
  • LIU Liang, WANG Dan, WANG Cheng, CHEN Hong, HU Guoyu, LI Qing
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1009-1019. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1009
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    In order to study the effects of radiation mutagenesis and the protective effects of three protective agents on Gardenia jasminoides cuttings, the cuttings was firstly irradiated by 60Co-γ rays with different doses (5, 10, 20, 40 Gy), then soaked in three kinds of protective agents including sodium chloride (NaCl), cysteine (Cys) and vitamin C (Vc), with four different concentrations. After that, the indexes of rooting rate, survival rate, root length, number of roots, planting rate, internode length, number of branches, number of leaves, and leaf length, leaf width of gardenia cuttings had been analyzed. Damages of the cuttings gradually increased with the increase of radiation dose. The half-rooting dose of 60Co-γ rays for gardenia cuttings was 21.22 Gy; half-lethal dose was 81.65 Gy, and half-planting dose was 20.30 Gy. Among the treatments, 3.00 g·L-1 NaCl had good effects on rooting and growth of gardenia cuttings at 20 Gy, 0.12 g·L-1 Cys and 0.08 g·L-1 Vc had good effects at 40 Gy. All the three protective agents performed well on protecting the cuttings against damages under high dose 60Co-γ rays, the protective effects were dependent on radiation dose and the concentration of protective agents. This research can provide a certain technical reference for the radiation mutation breeding of gardenia and the application of protective agents.
  • YANG Yanbing, ZHANG Huidi, CHEN Guiling, ZHANG Han, WANG Xuemei, WANG Runfeng, QIN Ling, GUAN Yan'an
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1020-1029. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1020
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    Elite foxtail millet cultivars such as Yugu 1, Jingu 21, and so on, contribute significantly to the development of foxtail millet industry. To better understand the genetic basis of excellent traits and the value in use of foxtail millet, phenotypic identification and genetic variation analysis were performed on 12 major foxtail millet cultivars selected from different ecological regions in this study. The results showed that large variations in plant height, panicle length, panicle thickness, internode length, single panicle weight, growth period and yellow pigment content were observed among the 12 cultivars. PCR amplification was carried out for the 12 elite foxtail millet cultivars by using SSR markers. A total of 258 polymorphic loci were detected by 79 pairs of SSR primers, with an average of 3.265 8 per pair. The polymorphism information content (PIC) values of the SSR markers ranged from 0.141 1 to 0.711 6, with an average of 0.510 1. 50 pairs of SSR primers had the PIC>0.5, accounting for 63.3% of the total polymorphic primers. The genetic distance between the 12 foxtail millet cultivars varied from 0.140 2 to 0.801 1, with an average of 0.473 7. The genetic distance between Yugu 1 and Canggu 4 from North China summer-sown foxtail millet region was the minimum, while Canggu 4 showed the highest genetic distance from native cultivar Jinxiangyu coming from Inner Mongolia plateau. Generally, the genetic distance between cultivars from North China summer-sown foxtail millet region and those from Northwest early spring-sown foxtail millet region was relative large. The 12 major cultivars could be classed into two groups at the genetic similarity coefficient of 0.594. Group I included Jigu 12, Jigu 19, Canggu 4, Yugu 1 and Ai 88 from North China summer-sown foxtail millet region, and the remaining seven cultivars formed Group II. Clustering of the 12 elite cultivars was consistent with the eco-regions where they released. The population structure was in agreement with that of cluster analysis, suggesting that gene exchanges may occur among cultivars from summer-sown and spring-sown foxtail millet regions. In summary, cultivars from the same eco-regional origin had low genetic differences, while those from different ecological origins had large genetic differences. Genetic differences among cultivars within North China summer-sown region were relative lower than those from other ecological regions. A large genetic difference was observed between cultivars from North China summer-sown region and those from northwest early-maturing spring-sown region. The varietal exchange between summer-sown and early-maturing spring-sown should be strengthened to enlarge the genetic variation in summer-sown foxtail millet in North China. These findings could provide a basis for superior foxtail millet breeding and promoting the utilization of germplasm resources.
  • REN Yuqin, FU Hongbo, LEI Chen, WANG Pengfei, MU Xiaopeng, ZHANG Jiancheng, DU Junjie
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1030-1038. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1030
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    To screen out the varieties with the highest flavonoid content and substance with antioxidant and tyrosinase activity in leaves of Chinese Dwarf Cherry. This study used mature leaves from 38 Chinese Dwarf Cherry germplasms as materials, the concentrations of catechin, epicatechin, liquiritigenin, rutin, quercetin, quercetin -7-O- glucoside, myricetin, glabridin and phloretin were determined by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UHPLC), and the antioxidant activity and the tyrosinase inhibitory ability were analyzed. The results showed that the flavonoid content of variety Y09-14 was 64.84 mg·g-1, the highest among 38 germplasms. Moreover, the Coefficient of variation of flavonoid and its 9 components among all varieties were over 20%, indicating there were rich genetic diversities. Cluster analysis based on flavonoid content in leaves showed that more than 70% of germplasms were classed as medium flavonoid level. By measuring the content of flavonoids and different components in leaves of different germplasms, it was found that catechin, epicatechin, rutin and quercetin -7-O- glucoside could be detected in all 38 germplasms, and catechin content was 6.271-935.295 mg·100g-1, which was significantly higher than the content of other eight substances. Catechin, epicatechin, rutin and quercetin -7-O- glucoside were positively correlated with DPPH scavenging rate, indicating that these four components had strong antioxidant capacity. Rutin, quercetin -7-O- glucoside and glabridin were positively correlated with tyrosinase inhibition rate. This study provides the basis for the detection and extraction of related substances in Chinese Dwarf Cherry in future studies.
  • LI Shijiao, ZHANG Xiaojun, QIAO Linyi, JIA Juqing, CHANG Lifang, ZHANG Shuwei, CHANG Zhijian, LI Xin
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1039-1047. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1039
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    As a part of the AP2/ERF superfamily, Ethylene Response Factor (ERF) family plays a key role in plants' response to salt stress. In order to reduce the negative effect of saline soil on wheat yield, AP2/ERF superfamily was isolated from wheat whole genome. And then, 96 ERF family members, a total of 229 homologous sequences in A, B and D genomes, were identified from the AP2/ERF superfamily according to the clustering results and structural characteristics. By phylogenetic analysis and database-based transcriptomic analysis, 13 TaERF members were selected, which displayed high similarity with the cloned salt-tolerant ERF genes or genes induced by NaCl. Subsequently, salt-tolerant material CH7034 and salt-sensitive variety SY95-71 were used to verify the expression levels of the 13 TaERFs after treatment with 250 mmol·L-1 NaCl. The results showed that TaERF27, TaERF35, TaERF55 and TaERF64 were significantly up-regulated under NaCl stress in CH7034, while there was no significant change in SY95-71, indicating that the four genes may be salt stress response genes. Analysis results of tissue specific expression and promoter regulation element showed that TaERF27, TaERF35, TaERF55 and TaERF64 expressed highly in seedling root and leaf of CH7034, and their promoter (-2 000 bp) sequences all contain multiple elements responding hormones like abscisic acid, salicylic acid and jasmonic acid, which demonstrated that these four TaERF members might be involved in various signal transduction pathways related to abiotic stress in plants. The results of this study not only helps to understand the response mechanism to abiotic stress in plant, but also provides reference genes for the improvement of salt tolerance of wheat varieties.
  • SUN Yuyan, ZHANG Huiqing, FAN Min, HE Yanjun, GUO Ping'an
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1048-1059. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1048
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    In order to reveal the possible roles of MIR319 family (miR319, miR319a and miR319a-3p) under the CGMMV stress, mature sequences of MIR319 were blasted against the watermelon genome to obtain the precursor gene. MEGA was used to analyze the evolutional relationship of precursor genes for MIR319. PlantCARE was used to analyze the cis-acting regulatory elements of the precursor gene promoter. Degradome sequencing was used to identify target genes of MIR319, and transcriptome sequencing and qRT-PCR were used to obtain the expression of target genes. The common precursor gene of MIR319, Pre-MIR319 was obtained, which was 170 bp in length, able to form the stem-loop structure. Sequence alignment showed that mature sequences of MIR319 were highly conserved at the 2~14 bases of 5'-terminal. Phylogenetic analysis of watermelon Pre-MIR319 and 116 miR319 precursor sequences from 35 species divided these precursor sequences into four branches. Watermelon Pre-MIR319 was closest to potato precursor gene miR319a (MI0025952). The promoter of Pre-MIR319 contain several cis-acting regulatory elements, such as light responsive element, gibberellin responsive element, ethylene responsive element, methyl jasmonate response element, MYB, MYC and etc. Five target genes of MIR319 family, Cla019567, Cla013523, Cla023342, Cla002428 and Cla013668, were predicted by degradome sequencing results. Among which, Cla019567, Cla013523, Cla023342 and Cla002428 are annotated as TCP transcription factor and Cla013668 is annotated as MYB transcription factor. The cleavage sites were located at the 10th of MIR319 at the 5'-terminal end. The amino acids number, molecular weight and theoretical isoelectric point of target genes were 319~554 aa, 34.94~61.21 kDa and 5.29~7.80, respectively. These proteins do not contain transmembrane domains and was located in the nucleus/cytoplasm. Expression profiles of target genes using transcriptome and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that miR319a negatively regulated its target gene Cla013523 (TCP). These results clarified the role of MIR319 family members in CGMMV stress response and revealed the regulation of MIR319 on their target genes.
  • XU Tao, LU Zhengzhao, XIA Dongjian, WAN Jing, JIANG Shuhan, SONG Jianghua
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1060-1066. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1060
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    F-box gene plays an important role in plant tissue development and abiotic stress response. To further explore the mechanism, a F-box gene BoFBX117 was cloned from the cabbage variety "BoJF-16-1" by RT-PCR. Its cDNA was 936 bp in length, encoding 311 amino acids, protein molecular weight was 30.14 kDa, and isoelectric point was 9.71. The gene encodes BoFBP7 protein. Sequence homology analysis showed that BoFBP7 is closely related to other FBP7 proteins in turnip, radish and Arabidopsis, with homology of 99.36%, 98.39%, and 92.26%, respectively. Quantitative PCR analysis showed that the expression of BoFBX117 gene was the highest in the rosette leaves, followed by the roots, and the lowest was in the young leaves, suggesting the tissue specific expression of BoFBX117 gene in cabbage. Under low temperature stress, the expression of BoFBX117 gene showed an upward trend, indicating that the expression of this gene was induced by low temperature stress. It is suggested that the BoFBX117 gene may play an important role in leaf development and response to low temperature stress in cabbage. This will provide basis for further analysis of the molecular mechanism of F-box gene regulating plant development and abiotic stress.
  • ZHANG Ruifang, ZHANG Hehong, WEI Zhongyan, CHEN Jianping, SUN Zongtao
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1067-1073. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1067
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    In order to understand the biological function of P10 protein of southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), we screened rice cDNA yeast two-hybrid library by using P10 protein as a bait, and analyzed the results by the methods of bioinformatics techniques. Ten different clones that may interact with P10 was obtained, including late embryogenesis abundant protein Lea14-A, thioredoxin H1, iron-sulfur assembly protein IscA, eukaryotic translation initiation factor 5A. Their interactions were further confirmed through one by one yeast two hybrid method. These results indicated that the growth and biosynthesis of nutrients in rice might be affected after virus infection. These results will provide a better understanding to of the rice virus pathogenicity.
  • DU Qiaoli, FANG Yuanpeng, JIANG Junmei, SUN Tao, REN Mingjian, XIE Xin
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1074-1083. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1074
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    NPR1 (non-expressor of PR genes 1) gene is an activator of plant system acquired resistance, and also one of the most important core factors in plant response to pathogen infection, it plays an important role in plant disease resistance. In order to classify the NPR1 gene family and verify the expression pattern of SbNPR1, bioinformatics and real-time fluorescence quantitative analysis (RT-qPCR) were used to analyze the NPR1 gene family and the expression of SbNPR1 expression respectively. The results showed that 5 NPR1 genes, SbNPR1~SbNPR5, were identified in sorghum and the length of amino acid sequence is 480~621 aa, the theoretical molecular weight is between 50.496 81~67.648 06 kDa, theory of isoelectric point is 5.64~6.11. Phylogenetic analysis showed that SbNPR1 was closely related to Sh253P03. Genetic structure analysis showed that the number of exons and introns varied little among members of the family. RT-qPCR analysis showed that the expression of SbNPR1 gene had tissue specificity in sorghum plant. The expression of SbNPR1 was inhibited and induced respectively by the treatment of hormone cyclophosphamide (GR24, 1 μmol·L-1) and salicylic acid (SA, 1 mmol·L-1). The expression of SbNPR1 showed a trend of first increasing and then decreasing treated by PEG6000 (20%) and NaCl (250 mmol·L-1), the relative expression levels were reached the maximum at 0.5 h, and then decreased. However, after treatment with Mannitol (D-Mannitol, 300 mmol·L-1), the expression level of SbNPR1 gene decreased significantly after 3 h. Sorghum bicolor is treated with pathogen-associated molecular pattern receptors (PAMPs) flg22 (100 nmol·L-1) and Chitin (8 nmol·L-1). The expression of SbNPR1 was induced by flg22 and reached to the highest at 12 h after treatment, while its expression was inhibited by Chitin treatment. This study provides a basis for further exploring the role of NPR1 family in regulating sorghum resistance, signal transduction, plant hormones and stress regulation.
  • WEI Limei, ZOU Xiaowen, XU Tinglu, YUAN Wentao, WEI Saijin
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1084-1090. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1084
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    To investigate the inhibition mechanism of antifungalmycin 211 produced by Streptomyces sp. JD211 against Rhizoctonia solani, the effects of different concentrations (0.46、0.63、1.26、2.53、4.00、5.06 μg·mL-1) of antifungalmycin 211 on cell membrane permeability and antioxidant system of R. solani were studied. Compared with the control, the treated group showed more obvious fluorescence of PI, increased extracellular conductivity, and decreased total lipid content of mycelium, indicating that the treatment of active substances increased the permeability of cell membrane, which lead to the destruction of cell membrane structure. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) were increased after treatment with low concentration (0.63 μg·mL-1) of antifungalmycin 211. In order to reduce oxidative damage, the antioxidant system of R. solani began to work. With the increase of concentration of antifungalmycin 211, the activities of five antioxidant enzymes were inhibited, and the activities of Lipoxygenase (LOX) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were increased, which indicated that the function of antioxidant system was destroyed, membrane was damaged by membrane peroxidation, and the growth of R. solani was inhibited. The study on the inhibition mechanism of antifungalmycin 211 on R. solani could provide theoretical guidance for the application of Streptomyces sp. JD211 in biological control.
  • SUN Kai, ZHAO Mengli, HAO Zhiyun, WANG Jianqing, SHEN Jiyuan, SONG Yize, KE Na, WANG Jiqing
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1091-1098. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1091
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    Keratin-associated proteins (KAPs) are main structural components of cashmere fibres, while KRTAP2-1 has not been identified in goat genome. In the study, a 399 bp open reading frame on chromosome 19 of goat was found to be homologous to human KRTAP2-1 sequences. Seven unique sequences (A-G) were detected in 249 Longdong cashmere goats using polymerase chain reaction-single stranded conformation polymorphism (PCR-SSCP) analysis. These sequences have the highest homology with KAP2-1 sequences of human and sheep, suggesting that these are variants of caprine KRTAP2-1. Twelve single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and two insertion/deletion (c.-61_-63delCTC and c.93_95delCCG) were found within the gene, including five SNPs in the coding region and 7 SNPs in the non-coding region. c.93_95delCCG would result in a deletion of Arg at position 32. Caprine KAP2-1 contains high levels of cysteine, proline, threonine and serine. The presence of variant C was associated with the decrease in diameter of cashmere fibre(presence: 13.4 ± 0.05 μm, absence: 13.6 ± 0.03 μm, P=0.010). These results indicate that caprine KRTAP2-1 are polymorphic, and variations in caprine KRTAP2-1 are valuable to be a genetic marker for reducing cashmere fibre diameter in Longdong cashmere goats.
  • Food Irradiation·Food Science
  • HE Weizhong, ZHAO Duoyong, FAN Yingying, WANG Cheng, LIU Zhi
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1099-1112. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1099
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    This study aimed to develop new different origin traceability methods for Xinjiang protected geographical indication(PGI) jujube products using nutrient quality, stable isotope and multi-element characteristics. 50 Hui jujube and 47 Jun jujube samples were collected from 97 fields in 15 farming regions of Xinjiang province (Charkhlik, Khotan, Aksu and Markit, etc.). 13 nutrient quality indexes (protein, reducing sugar, free amino acids, total flavonoids, etc.), isotope ratios of stable carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen(δ13C, δ15N, δ2H, δ18O), and 21 trace element contents (Na, Mg, K, Fe and Zn, etc.) were determined. One-way ANOVA was applied for the difference comparison of single nutrient quality, stable isotope and multi-element characteristics (P<0.05) of jujubes between regions. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) modeling of these two kinds of signatures showed that stable isotope and multi-element of jujubes were more significantly different than nutrient quality, which can improve the discriminant accuracies of origin traceability. The discriminant accuracies using nutrient indexes were just 86.00% and 85.11% for Hui jujube and Jun jujube, while they can be improved to 94.12% and 95.74% using stable isotope and multi-element signatures, respectively. Notably, the accuracies for two PGI jujubes (Charkhlik Hui jujube and Khotan Jun jujube) were up to 100%, and the mis-discriminant probability was 0%. Therefore, this strategy maybe promising to be a reliable tool for origin traceability of Xinjiang PGI jujube products.
  • XU Yuqian, LI Shurong, LI Wenhui, WANG Li, HUANG Guangxue, WANG Huihua, MA Changlu
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1113-1120. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1113
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    In order to know the effect of food matrix on the sterilization efficacy of γ-irradiation. By lgN-D linear regression analysis, the formula of the number of viable bacteria was obtained. The D10 value was used to characterize the difference of absorbed dose of gamma ray and electron beam irradiation in sterile water environment, and the influence of different gamma ray absorption dose, sugar concentration and salt solution concentration on the germicidal efficacy of Listeria Innocua was analyzed. The results shows that when the irradiation environment is the sterile water, the gamma ray D10 value is less than the electron beam, respectively 0.788 and 0.872 kGy, which shows that the gamma ray sterilization effect is better. Under the irradiation of gamma ray, The D10 value of Listeria Innocua in sterilized saline (0.85% NaCI) was not significantly different from that of sterile water. With the increase of salt concentration, the D10 value of innocua first increased and then decreased, and the D10 value at 3% and 5% salt concentration was 0.709 kGy and 0.730 kGy, respectively, lower than that of sterile water. The D10 value of Listeria Innocua in sugar solution was significantly higher than that of sterile water. With the increase of the concentration of sugar solution, D10 first increased and then decreased. The D10 value of 5% sugar solution was the largest, which was 1.13 kGy. It could be seen that salt solution has a synergistic effect on sterilization, while sugar solution has a resistance effect on sterilization. The results provide a reference for further exploring the mechanism of irradiation sterilization, reducing radiation dose cost and improving product quality.
  • WU Lina, ZHU Yuyan, HUAN Chen, XU Qihang, LI Sheng'e, ZHENG Xiaolin
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1121-1128. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1121
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    In order to explore the effects of different colored bagging on postharvest soft nose and storage characteristics, the incidence of soft nose and sugar metabolism in mango fruit Mangifera indica L.cv. Keitt pre-harvest bagged with yellow or white bag were investigated during storage. The results showed that the bagging with yellow bag significantly reduced the incidence of soft nose disease in mango fruit during storage for 10 d compared to bagging with white bags. In addition, the bagging with yellow bags significantly decreased the activities of amylase, acid invertase (AI), neutral invertase (NI), sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS) and sucrose synthase (SS) in flesh of the mango fruit, which resulted in slowing the rates of decrease in starch content and accumulation of soluble sugar content, and in turn to be contributed to delaying the softening rate and improving the fruit storability of mango fruit during storage. It was suggested that the bagging treatment affected the sugar metabolism would be associated with the development of soft nose disease in Keitt mango fruit during postharvest. Our present work might provide references for selecting reasonable pre-harvest bagging materials of mango fruit in practice.
  • XU Xiaolu, LIU Jing, DENG Bing, GENG Xueran, CHENG Yanfen, FENG Cuiping
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1129-1135. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1129
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    In order to control the browning of postharvest Lentinus edodes during its storage and improve the storage quality, different doses (2, 4, 6 and 8 kJ·m-2) of shortwave ultraviolet (UV-C) were applied to the fresh Lentinus edodes. The effects of different doses of UV-C on the color, total phenol content, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), soluble protein, reducing sugar, free amino acids and surface microorganisms of Lentinus edodes were investigated in this study. The results showed that UV-C treatment could delay the color decline of Lentinus edodes, maintaining a high content of total phenols, which also helped to maintain the activities of PAL, SOD, CAT and POD at a higher level. The activity of PPO was inhibited and the degradation of protein was delayed to a certain extent. The content of reducing sugar and soluble protein was maintained at a higher level, which all effectively inhibited the growth of microorganisms. Among them, 4 kJ·m-2 UV-C treatment was the best effective. In this study, UV-C treatment can effectively inhibit the browning of Lentinus edodes and prolong its storage period, which supports for the preservation of Lentinus edodes.
  • GUO Liping, ZHANG Limin, MU Changkao, YE Yangfang, WANG Chunlin
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1136-1146. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1136
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    To better understand the effect of liquid nitrogen (LN) freezing on changes in nutrients of soft-shell green mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) with during its frozen storage, a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics technique was used to monitor metabolic profiles of edible tissues of soft-shell crabs with LN freezing during short-term (7 days) and long-term (8 months) frozen storage(-20℃). The results showed that short-term frozen storage and LN freezing showed no significant effect on crab metabolic profiles. However, the muscle dimethylamine level was tripled whereas the hepatopancreas inosine level was doubled after short-term frozen storage. In contrast, LN freezing could inhibit the increase of these two metabolites. Besides, long-term frozen storage with LN freezing lead to a significant increase in the muscle inosine, maltose, and glucose as well as hepatopancreas inosine, glutamine, and uridine of soft-shell crabs. These findings demonstrated the effectiveness of LN freezing to ameliorate the quality deterioration of soft-shell crab during its frozen storage. This study provide a theoretical reference for understanding the quality change of soft shell crobs during frozen storage.
  • MAN Huasheng, LYU Xiamin, HUANG Jianying
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1147-1153. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1147
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    To prepare a fluorescence sensor for cocoa analysis of H2O2, chitosan and dl-tartaric acid were used as precursors to prepare novel nitrogen doped carbon quantum dots (CDs) by hydrothermal treatment, which could be used to detect the amount of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in food efficiently and conveniently. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to analyze and characterize.The results showed that the fluorescence quantum yield of the CDs was about 5.22%, and the particle size was about 20 nm, CDs contained a graphene structure with nitrogen atoms, and its surface showed abundant functional groups such as hydroxyl amino and carboxyl groups. In addition, Fe3+ can quench the fluorescence of CDs solution, while Fe2+ had almost no effect on CDs. According to the concentration ratio of CDs and Fe3+ when the fluorescence almost disappeared after mixing, then Fe3+ replaced by Fe2+ at the same concentration, and then H2O2 of different concentrations was added. After the rapid and uniform mixing, the fluorescence emission spectrum under the excitation light at 320 nm was measured and the standard curve was obtained with a linear relationship of H2O2 concentration at 0-60 nm, and the correlation coefficient called R2 was about 0.990 0, with the detection limit about 0.65 nm.
  • ZHENG Fangyuan, ZHOU Xiuwen, YUAN Wang, FENG Tao, LI Sufang, PAN Jiarong
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1154-1161. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1154
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    In order to standardize food safety marks, and prevent the addition of non-edible fox meat to meat products, which leads to ethical and religious sensitive issues, it is urgent to establish identification a methods for the fox meat-derived ingredients. In this study, the meat of fox, cow, sheep, pig, duck, donkey, rat and the simulated adulteration samples were taken as the object of subject. Specific cross primer was designed based on the mitochondrial gene sequence of the fox. The Bst DNA polymerase reaction system was subjected to constant temperature amplification at 63℃ for 60 min. The electrophoresis detection result of the amplified product was consistent with those of disposable nucleic acid test strips. Therefore, the cross primer isothermal amplification technique combined with nucleic acid test strip detection for rapid detection of fox-derived components were set up. In this study, the established specific isothermal amplification system for meat-derived component detection had a sensitivity of 10 ng·μL-1 to a single fox-derived DNA component, and detection ratio of the fox meat component in the mixture of fox and sheep meat was 1%. These results could provide the simple, economical, fast and effective technical support for the on-site inspection of the meat product market.
  • GENG Yuhan, CHENG Chao, WU Yuehao, FANG Weiming, YANG Zhengfei, YIN Yongqi
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1162-1169. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1162
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    In order to reveal the regulation mechanisms of ultraviolet and heat treatments on the physio-biochemical regulation and melatonin enrichment in mustard, mustard seeds were used as the test material, and physio-biochemical technology and fluorescence quantitative PCR were used to study the main physio-biochemical indexes and the expression of key enzyme genes of mustard sprouts under ultraviolet and heat treatments during germination. The results showed that the length of mustard sprouts under ultraviolet and heat treatments was significantly lower than that of in the control group(CK) during germination. Soluble protein content, and the total antioxidant capacity were significantly higher than that of the control treatment(P<0.05). At the time point of observation (4 d and 7 d), melatonin content was highest in the sprouts treated with heat for 4 days, which was 2.89 times of the control treatment and 2.47 times of ultraviolet treatment. On the 4th day of germination, compared with the control treatment, the expressions of TDC2, T5H2 and SNAT4 of the sprouts treated with heat were significantly up-regulated, while SNAT2 and ASMT3 significantly down-regulated (P<0.05). The results indicated that heat treatment could be an effective method to enrich melatonin in mustard sprouts.
  • WANG Yan, LIN Wei, YU Genrong, SUN Peilong
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1170-1177. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1170
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    In the process of food storage and transportation, it is easily to be polluted by fungi and cause spoilage. As a natural fungistat, plant essential oil is volatile, biodegradable, low residue, low toxicity, and environmentally friendly, which has become a hot spot in the research and development of food industry. This paper reviews the sources and active ingredients of plant essential oils, the inhibitory effect on fungal growth and mycotoxin synthesis, and their applications in food preservation, which would provide reference for further development and utilization of plant essential oil as natural antifungal agents and food preservatives.
  • Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology
  • FANG Yanfei, FU Xiaowen, XU Wenxiu, LIU Wen, HUANG Hongmei, ZHANG Na, DU Xiaojing, ZHANG Yongjie
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1178-1187. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1178
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    In order to explore the effects of different ombinations of nitrogen application on the soil nitrogen and yield of the winter wheat-summer soybean rotation system in 2017-2018, field experiments were carried out in the Yining County Agricultural Science and Technology Demonstration Garden, using the winter wheat-summer soybean rotation. Four nitrogen application levels were set in the previous wheat season: 0 (N0), 104 (N1), 173 (N2), 242 kg·hm-2 (N3) and 3 nitrogen application levels were set in the subsequent soybean season: 0 (S0), 69 (S1), 138 kg·hm-2 (S2), to study the effects of different nitrogen application combinations on the soil nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), ammonium-nitrogen (NH4+-N) and inorganic nitrogen residue in the 0~100 cm soil layer and yield of the farmland after crops harvest. The results showed that soil NO3-N and NH4+-N contents of winter wheat at different nitrogen levels reached the maximum in the 20~40 cm soil layer, and the soil NO3-N and NH4+-N contents of N3 reached the highest, reaching 14.65 mg·kg-1 and 4.26 mg·kg-1, respectively, the soil NO3-N content were 92.86%, 44.69%, and 17.03%, respectively, higher than that of N0, N1, and N2, and the soil NH4+-N increased by 69.95%, 26.10% and 8.46% in turn. The higher the nitrogen application rate in winter wheat, the greater amount of residual inorganic nitrogen in the soil, among them, N3 was the highest in the wheat season, which was 200.62 kg·hm-2. In addition, nitrogen application in the previous wheat season could also affect the content of soil NO3-N, NH4+-N and residual inorganic nitrogen in the following soybean; the soil NO3-N and NH4+-N content of summer soybeans were also highest in the 20~40 cm soil layer, and the soil NO3-N, NH4+-N content and inorganic nitrogen residues of N3S2 were largest, the average value was 18.61 mg·kg-1, 5.10 mg·kg-1 and 258.36 kg·hm-2, respectively. The winter wheat yield was the highest with 7 828.64 kg·hm-2 under the nitrogen application of 173 kg·hm-2 (N2), and the average yield was 35.45%, 16.77%, and 6.26% higher than that of N0, N1, and N3, respectively; On this basis, when 69 kg·hm-2 nitrogen was applied to summer soybeans (S1), the yield of summer soybeans was the highest, with an average of 2 988.93 kg·hm-2, and the annual total yield also reached the highest, at 10 817.5 kg·hm-2. In summary, 173 kg·hm-2 nitrogen application in the wheat season and 69 kg·hm-2 nitrogen application in the bean season not only benefit to increase the annual yield of wheat and beans, but also reduce the residual nitrogen in the soil, which can provide a certain reference standard for two crops a year system with high efficient nitrogen application.
  • ZHAO Siming, CAO Bing, WAN Zhongwu, XIE Yingji
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1188-1195. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1188
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    In order to compare effects of different covering materials on soil temperature, moisture and fruit quality of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. cv. Lingwuchangzao in jujube orchard, taking Ziziphus jujuba Mill. cv. Lingwuchangzao as the experiment object, the changes in soil temperature and moisture, jujube hanging length, organic acid content, soluble sugar content and Vc content were tested regularly after the whole garden covered with garden cloth or straw, and clear tillage was used as a control (CK). The results showed that compared with CK, the daily average soil temperature of jujube orchard with garden cloth mulching increased by 0.7℃, while the average soil temperature under straw mulching decreased by 2.0℃, all kinds of mulching treatments increased the soil moisture of jujube orchard. Compared with the CK, the mulching treatment of garden cloth covering increased by 3.1% and the straw mulching treatment increased by 2.8%. Both garden cloth covering and straw mulching had significant effects on the vegetative growth and fruit quality of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. cv. Lingwuchangzao. Jujube fruit soluble sugar content and soluble solid content under the straw mulching increased by 33.7% and 20.0%, respectively. Compared with CK, the Vc content of fruit covered with garden cloth increased by 14.8%, and the soluble sugar content increased by 24.1%. All these results indicated that garden cloth covering and straw mulching can promote the vegetative growth of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. cv. Lingwuchangzao and improve fruit quality. The study is expected to provide reference for jujube orchard production in arid and semi-arid areas in Northwest China.
  • LIU Qiangjuan, KANG Jianhong, WU Jiarui, SUN Jianbo, MA Xueying, WANG Xingqiang, JIAN Tiancai
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1196-1208. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1196
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    For exploring the effect mechanism of different nitrogen application amounts impact on potato tuber starch formation and yield in Ningxia arid areas, field trials were carried out in the mountainous areas of southern Ningxia in 2017(normal year) and 2019(wet year) respectively. The potato cultivar Qingshu No. 9 was used as the material and a single factor random Block experiment was designed, with no nitrogen fertilizer (N0) as the control, to study the effects of pure nitrogen application rate of 75 (N1), 150 (N2), 225 kg·hm-2 (N3) on potato starch content, key starch forming enzymes and yield. The results showed that with the increase of nitrogen application amount, the total starch and amylopectin content increased first and then decreased, with N2 being the highest, significantly increasing by 21.23, 26.42 percentage point (2017) and 19.74、24.93 percentage point(2019); while the amylose content increased with the increase of nitrogen application amount, reaching the highest at N3, which was 1.59 percentage point (2017) and 1.78 percentage point (2019) higher than N0. Both adenosine diphosphate glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPP) and starch branching enzyme (SBE) had the highest N2, which increased by 57.38%, 36.83% (2017) and 67.19%, 29.01% (2019) compared with N0, respectively; while soluble starch synthase (SSS) and bound starch synthase (GBSS) were the highest with N3, which increased by 33.90%, 49.51% (2017) and 46.02%, 51.00% (2019) respectively compared with N0. Correlation and general analysis show that starch content and key enzymes in starch synthesis have a positive correlation, and AGPP, SSS, and GBSS have a greater direct contribution to the process of starch synthesis; Compared with N0, the potato output of N1~N3 increased by 10.72%~21.02% and 8.40%~16.30% in 2017 and 2019, respectively. The yield of N2 is the best; the best nitrogen application rate to achieve the highest yield is 150-184 (2017), 150-196 kg·hm-2 (2019). Therefore, it is suggested that the nitrogen application amount of 150-200 kg·hm-2 for potato in arid areas of Ningxia can effectively increase the activity of key enzymes in starch formation, accelerate starch formation and accumulation, and promote the increase of potato production, thereby increasing the economic benefits of local people.
  • LI Ying, ZHANG Lina, YANG Wenxiu, MA Jinhu, YANG Xiaohuan
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1209-1220. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1209
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    In order to study the inhibitory effect and mechanism of Eupatorium adenophorum leaf extract on weed growth and development, four species of common weeds in fields, Bidens pilosa L., Portulaca oleracea L., Salsola collina Pall., and Cynanchum chinense R.Br., were selected as experimental materials. The paper roller-sprouting method and pot culture method were used to study the effects of different concentrations of leaf extracts (200, 400, 600, 800, 1 000 mg·L-1) from E. adenophorum on seed germination and seedling growth of four weed species. The germination test showed that the germination index of weed seeds decreased with the increase of the E. adenophorum leaf extract concentration, when the concentration was 600 mg·L-1, compared with the control, seed germination potential, germination rate, germination index and vigor index in E. adenophorum leaf extracts-treated weeds were significantly decreased. The pot culture test showed that, the inhibition rate of the extracts on root length and fresh weight of the tested weed seedlings both followed the order of C. chinense >S. collina >P. oleracea >B. pilosa. Further study suggested that E. adenophorum leaf extracts-treated induced the antioxidant enzyme activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and catalase (CAT) increased, and the contents of ascorbic acid (AsA), glutathione (GSH) and osmotic adjustment substances-proline were improved. Meanwhile, the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide anion free radical ($O_2^{-}$) also were increased. Taken together, these findings indicate that the oxidative stress of E. adenophorum extracts on weeds is the internal mechanism that leads to the decrease of seed germination index and inhibition of seedling growth. This finding provides a theoretical basis for the application of E. adenophorum leaf extract in farmland weed control.
  • NIE Xianguang, WANG Lin
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1221-1230. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1221
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    To explore the physiological and biochemical response mechanisms of plants and plant combinations and the advantages of plant combinations over single plants in phytoremediation of bisphenol A (BPA). In this study, the physiological responses to BPA of three plants, Phragmites australis, Typha Orientalis, and Triarrhena Sacchariflora, were studied. The results showed that under certain BPA concentration, some plant combinations could significantly improve the fresh weight, dry weight, photosynthetic pigment content, antioxidant enzyme activity (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and peroxidase (POD)), antioxidant non-enzyme substance (GSH), and osmotic stress substance (Pro). The accumulation of reactive oxygen species (H2O2) and plasma membrane peroxide level (MDA) were significantly reduced. The maximum dry weight was 1.09 and 1.23 times as much as that of a single plant under the same treatment; the total chlorophyll content was 1.15 and 1.13 times as much as that of a single plant; the total chlorophyll content was 1.30 and 1.17 times as much as that of a single plant; the total chlorophyll content was 1.30 and 1.17 times as much as that of a single plant; the content of Pro was 1.09 and 1.16 times as much as that of a single plant; the content of H2O2 was 0.82 and 0.91 times as much as that of a single plant; and the content of MDA was 0.87 and 0.88 times as much as that of a single plant. This study provides a reference for revealing the physiological regulatory mechanism of the superiority of plant combinations over single plants in phytoremediation of BPA.
  • ZHANG Haibo, SU Long, CHENG Hongyan, ZHANG Guosheng, HE Xiaofang
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1231-1242. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1231
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    The biochar (LSBC) prepared from spent Lentinus edodes substrate spent Lentinus edodes substrate at different pyrolysis temperatures (350℃ and 750℃) was used to study the internal relationship between their physicochemical characteristics and malachite green (MG) adsorption performance. The influence of pyrolysis temperatures on the physicochemical properties and the dye adsorption capacity of the biochar were studied, and the mechanism was investigated by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that the specific surface area, the aromatization degree, and the calcium oxalate (calcium carbonate) components of adsorbent increased with the increase of pyrolysis temperature, and these properties were the key factors for the differential adsorption capacities. The batch adsorption experiments showed that the adsorption process of malachite green by spent Lentinus edodes substrate and LSBC was in accordance with the First order kinetic model and Redlich-Peterson model. The maximum adsorption capacity of spent Lentinus edodes substrate, LS350 and LS750 calculated by Langmuir model was 6 785.65, 6 986.74 and 13 118.43 mg·g-1, respectively, LS750 showed the best adsorption performance. The adsorption mechanisms showed that the adsorption process mainly referred to hydrogen bonding, π-π conjugation, electrostatic attraction, and cation exchange. The biochar prepared from spent Lentinus edodes substrate showed high adsorption performance to malachite green and can be resued, which provide theoretical basis and practical support for the application of spent mushroom substrate based biochar in the field of printing and dyeing wastewater treatment.
  • PEI Xuexia, DANG Jianyou, ZHANG Dingyi, ZHANG Jing, WANG Jiao'ai, CHENG Maifeng
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2021, 35(5): 1243-1251. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.05.1243
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    The purpose of this study was to explore effective ways to improve soil water storage and conservation during fallow period and ensure the stable and high yield of dryland wheat. A two-factor split-plot experiment was conducted to investigate effects of the combined application of tillage practice with super absorbent polymers on soil water content (SWC), soil nutrient content, wheat yield, water and precipitation use efficiency (WUE and PUE). The main plot was tillage practice (subsoiling tillage, deep plow tillage and rotary tillage), and subplot was super absorbent polymers (SAP) applied at rates of 0, 45, and 90 kg·hm-2. The correlation among the SWC, yields, yield components and WUE were analyzed. The results showed that, compared with rotary tillage at fallow stage, subsoiling tillage at fallow stage increased SWC of 20~160 cm soil layer before sowing, deep plow tillage at fallow stage increased SWC of 0~20 cm and 60~140 cm soil layer before sowing. And the water utilization in the 20~200 cm soil depth during harvest stage was accelerated. Consequently, by increasing the spike number and grain number per spike, wheat yield was significantly increased by 12.63% and 6.88%, respectively. WUE and PUE were significantly increased. The soil organic matter, alkaline-N, Olsen-P content at the 20-40 cm depth increased. Tillage at fallow stage, combined with the application of 45 kg·hm-2 SAP significantly increased soil water conservation ability during the fallow period, water utilization efficiency and yield of dry-land wheat. The effect of subsoiling tillage on yield and WUE was better than deep plow tillage. Both wheat yields and PUE had a positive correlation with SWC of 60-120 cm soil depth before sowing in the dry land. Our findings provide a theoretical basis for improving the yield and water use efficiency of dryland wheat in the south of Shanxi Province by optimizing the tillage methods and the application rate of SAP, which are of great significance for the stable and high yield of dryland wheat and reducing the annual yield fluctuation.