10 May 2020, Volume 34 Issue 5

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    Induced Mutatuions for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
  • HAO Yaoshan, WANG Xiaoqing, ZHANG Huanhuan, WANG Yixue, SUN Yi, DUAN Yonghong, DU Jianzhong, ZHOU Fuping
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 905-912. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.0905
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    Acquirement of genetically modified sorghum varieties with germinated mature embryos as explants can greatly improve the efficiency of sorghum breeding. To establish and improve the genetic transformation system of sorghum embryo, in the present study, with Sorghum Is-623 as transformation receptor and plasmid pM3301UbiSpCP4 as exogenous gene donor, Agrobacterium-mediated transformation was conducted, and the key factors that affected the transformation efficiency was investigated as well. The results showed that the optimal Dicamba concentration that induce callus generation from mature embryos was about 5 mg·L-1. The genetic transformation efficiency was the highest when embryos were inoculatd with Agrobacterium tumefaciens for 2 hours. We obtained 301 callus that showed glyphosate-resistance, and they belonged to 75 transformation events. With PCR amplification, Southern blotting hybridization and CP4-EPSPS protein test strip detection for the foreigner genes, and glyphosate-tolerance assay in the field, finally we obtained 6 transgenic sorghum lines exhibited glyphosate-tolerance level 1 and 3 lines presented glyphosate- tolerance level 2. In this study, a genetic transformation system with sorghum embryo as explant was initially established, which could benefit sorghum genetic transformation in the future.
  • WANG Linye, JI Bingxuan, ZENG Yanda, ZHANG Qijun, ZHANG Meiping, LYU Chuangen
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 913-920. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.0913
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    To learn the effect of UV-B radiation on the photosynthesis of photooxidation rice, agronomic traits of an indica rice 812S (wild type, as an ordinary rice) and its leaf photooxidation mutant 812HS were studied. Under a natural condition, rice plants were treated with enhanced UV-B radiation at a dose of 40 kJ·m-2·d-1 for 65 days. The relevant physiological indexes were detected and analyzed at the stages of seedling, tillering, jointing, heading and filling. Compared with that under the natural light condition, enhanced UV-B radiation reduced the number of tillers and effective tillers of 812HS, and the plants were dwarfed, but the degree of inhibition was weaker than that of ordinary rice; the chlorophyll content of 812HS was significantly reduced at the tillering stage, which was lower than that of ordinary rice. However, after the heading stage especially in the filling stage, the chlorophyll content of 812HS increased significantly the increased percentage was 34.3 more than that of the wild type. After irradiated with the enhanced UV-B radiation, the initial light conversion efficiency (Fv/Fm) of PSII in 812HS was increased more than that in ordinary rice at the tillering stage, and decreased more than that in ordinary rice at the jointing and filling stages. The reason for PSII inactivation was that PQs and PSI protein complexes were sensitive to UV-B radiation, electrons were blocked from QA- to QB-, and the fast-recovery library PQ was affected. Enhanced UV-B radiation inhibited the photosynthesis and growth of rice, but the effects on photooxidation rice 812HS was lower than that on ordinary rice. The study is positive for increasing the understanding of rice photooxidation and physiology.
  • LI Huifeng, DONG Qinglong, ZHAO Qiang, RAN Kun
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 921-931. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.0921
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    To explore the role of AP2/ERF transcription factors in growth, biotic and abiotic stress response of apple (Malus pumila Mill.), full-length cDNA sequences of 14 MdAP2/ERF genes were cloned and analyzed with homologous alignment. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analysis indicated that MdAP2/ERF transcription was detected in 16 different tissues using the array analysis. The transcript abundance of MdAP2/ERF in response to Alternaria alternata apple pathotype (AAAP) infection, and NaCl or mannitol stress was measured using RNA-seq and RT-qPCR analyses, respectively. The results revealed that fourteen MdAP2/ERF genes, and designated as MdERF9-10, MdERF12-15, MdERF20-21, MdERF30, MdERF37 and MdAP2D66-69 were obtained, with GenBank accession No. MG099818-19, MG099821-24, MG099829-30, MG099839, MG099846 and MG099855-58. The open reading frame (ORF) of the 14 genes were 966, 540, 1 260, 843, 1 056, 1 011, 1 347, 1 047, 669, 615, 1 956, 1 455, 1 365 and 1 101 bp in length, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that MdERF12, MdERF37 and MdERF20 belong to A-2, A-4 and A-6 group of DREB subfamily, respectively; MdERF30, MdERF15, MdERF14/MdERF21 and MdERF9/MdERF10/MdERF13 are clustered into B-1, B-3, B-5 and B-6 group of ERF subfamily, respectively; MdAP2D66-69 is a member of AP2 subfamily. The results of subcellular localization prediction showed that MdERF9-10, MdERF12-15, MdERF20, MdERF30, MdERF37 and MdAP2D66-69 were located in the nucleus; MdERF21 was located in the mitochondrion. Results from array analysis indicated that 14 MdAP2/ERF genes were expressed in all examined tissues with various transcript abundances. RNA-seq data showed that transcription of MdERF12, MdERF14, MdERF15, MdERF20 and MdAP2D66/67/69 were responsive to AAAP infection. Under 150 mmol·L-1 NaCl treatment, the transcription of MdERF10, MdERF12, MdERF13, MdERF15, MdERF20, MdERF30 and MdERF37 were induced, whereas MdERF14 and MdAP2D68 were down-regulated. Under 300 mmol·L-1 mannitol treatment, the transcription of MdERF10, MdERF30, MdERF37 and MdAP2D66-69 were induced, whereas MdERF14 was down-regulated. The present study, our data indicated that 14 MdAP2/ERF genes are constitutively expressed in all examined tissues, and response to AAAP infection, and salt or mannitol stress, suggesting that they might participate in the regulation of biotic and abiotic stress responses in apple. These results lay a theoretical foundation for further studying the mechanism of AP2/ERF transcription factor in the regulation of apple growth, development and stress responses.
  • XU Jingjing, YUAN Ping, BAI Haodong, LIAO Haimin, LI Zuren
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 932-938. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.0932
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    To explore the allelopathic effect of caprylic acid on Conyza canadensis, based on the proteomics data of C. canadensis under caprylic acid treatment, the complete cDNA sequence of CcLhca-Z6 gene was cloned by homologous cloning and RACE technology. The expression of CcLhca-Z6 gene was measured by fluorescence quantitative PCR at different time after caprylic acid application. The results showed that the full length of CcLhca-Z6 was 1016 bp (Gene Bank NO. MH512007.1), encoding 266 amino acid residues with a molecular mass of 28.14 kD and theoretical pI of 5.29. Phylogenetic analysis showed that CcLhca-Z6 protein was clustered into a group with Artemisia annua (PWA84283.1), and the CcLhca-Z6 protein had the closest genetic relationship with Artemisia annua (PWA84283.1). RT-qPCR results showed that the treatment with caprylic acid significantly affected the expression of Lhca-z6 gene in the leaves of C. canadensis which showed a trend of first increasing and then descending with time. It was speculated that the CcLhca-Z6 gene may be the key gene in response to caprylic acid stress. This study laid a foundation for further exploring the function mechanism of plant herbicide caprylic acid.
  • SHI Cong, YAN Xiaomei, WEI Chaoling
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 939-947. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.0939
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    To clarify the sequence and expression characteristics of CsSNAT, the study cloned the full-length cDNA sequences of serotonin-N-acetylserotonin methyltransferase(CsSNAT), the key rate-limiting enzyme in the melatonin synthesis pathway, using SMARTTM RACE from the tea plant cultivars of Shuchazao based on the tea plant transcriptome database. The gene structure and expression patterns were analyzed. The results show that the full length cDNA was 1 014 bp,with an ORF of 742 bp, encoding 247 amino acids. The predict molecular weight and theoretic isoelectric point of CsSNAT are 27.36 kDa and 7.64,respectively. Amino acid sequence alignment revealed that CsSNAT was highly homologous to other SNAT proteins in higher plant. CsSNAT in tea plant was most homologous to VvSNAT in grape, with 66.19% similarity. Culture with 0.5 mg·L-1 IPTG at 28℃ for 6 h, a large amount of soluble protein with molecular weight of about 66 kDa were observed in supernatant. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that the expression level of CsSNAT gene was highest under melatonin treatment, which was 3 times higher than the control. It was significantly up-regulated in tea plants after Ectropis oblique feeding for six hours.Different hormone treatments results showed that the CsSNAT was induced by ABA, MeJA and SA treatment. The obtained results would provide a basis for elucidating further the function of CsSNAT.
  • TIAN Aimei, YU Hui
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 948-953. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.0948
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    To understand the sequence features and expression characteristics of Brassica alboglabra cellulose synthase-like proteins gene, full-length cDNA sequence of a CSLD gene was obtained from Brassica alboglabra by using RT-PCR and designated as BaCSLD (GenBank Accession Number: MH491418).The characteristics of BaCSLD gene sequence, subcellular localization, tissue specific expression were analyzed and phylogenetic tree was constructed by the maximum parsimony (MP). Results showed that BaCSLD contains a 2 796 bp opening reading frame (ORF), encoding 931 amino acids, and it is a transmembrane protein with 8 transmembrane regions. Phylogenetic analysis results indicated that BaCSLD and its 12 homogeneous sequences were classed into 4 groups. The maximum parsimony (MP) trees showed that BaCSLD and AtCSLD from Cruciferae were in the same branch, followed by McCSLD from Momordica charantia. However, BaCSLD was most distantly related to BnCSLD and BrCSLD, which are also from Brassica. The BaCSLD::GFP fusion protein was located in the cell membrane. The qRT-PCR analysis revealed that BaCSLD was constitutively expressed only in the larger flower buds and open flower. This study provided some references for further studying the functions of cellulose synthase-like proteins genes.
  • TAN Zhaoyan, KANG Ze, HUANG Haonan, CHEN Huabao, GONG Guoshu, YONG Taiwen, YANG Wenyu, CHANG Xiaoli
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 954-962. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.0954
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    In order to develop one kind of highly efficient and low toxic seed coating agent used for controlling Fusarium root rot and root insects of soybean. The virulence of uniconzole 96%, propiconazole 96%, abamectin 97%, and different mixture compounds on F. graminearum and F. oxysporum were tested using the method of hyphal growth inhibition, and the optimal proportion of the mixture compounds was screened. Furthermore, the seed coating agent was prepared by wet grinding method and the preventive effect was verified by indoor potted seedlings. The results showed that the inhibition of the mixture of uniconzole, tebuconazole, and abamectin at the proportion of 5:1:2 was the best for two Fusarium species. Before sowing, the soybean seed was treated with 8% uniconzole·propiconazole·abamectin suspension seed coating at 0.2~0.5 g·kg-1, which could promote soybean emergence and the relative preventive effect on soybean root rot infected by F. oxyporum was over 80.1%. This study provides valuable information for field application of 8% uniconzole·propiconazole·abamectin suspension seed coating agent in effective control of Fusarium root rot and pests of soybean.
  • XU Lihua, DING Haomiao, JIN Xudong, HUANG Guanjie, XIA Pengkui, WANG Caisheng, WANG Zhonghua
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 963-972. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.0963
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    This study was aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of fucoxanthin on the proliferation of human erythroleukemia (HEL) cells and the mechanism of inducing apoptosis. The proliferation of HEL cell treated with different concentrations of fucoxanthin was assessed by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, and the cell cycle, mitochondrial membrane potential and apoptosis changes were analyzed by flow cytometry. The expression of apoptosis-related genes and proteins were determined by the real-time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) and Western blot. The results showed that fucoxanthin decreased the proliferation of HEL cell in a concentration manner. Flow cytometry showed that fucoxanthin increased the percentage of HEL cells in the G0/G1 phase, reduced the percentage of HEL cells in the G2/M and S phase, promoted cell apoptosis and decreased mitochondrial membrane potential after treated with fucoxanthin for 24 h. It also induced apoptosis by up-regulating expression of pro-apoptotic genes and down-regulating the anti-apoptotic genes. The expression of Bcl-xL protein was no significant change. In addition, Caspase-3 and Bax protein levels were significantly increased, but the expression of Bcl-2 protein was decreased. The results indicated that fucoxanthin had a significantly inhibitory effect on the HEL cells in vitro, which provided a theoretical basis for the development of new anti-HEL functional foods.
  • LI Chunnan, FU Qiaojuan, SHEN Guozheng, ZHAO Fukang, ZHANG Xiaoying, RUAN Ruoxin
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 973-981. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.0973
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    As an important ornamental and medicinal horticultural plant, Orchidaceae exhibit diverse morphological types, complex chromosome ploidy, and commonly appear endopolyploidization during the long-term evolution. Exploring the genetic information of Orchidaceae is important for breeding research. Flow cytometry (FCM) is a high-throughput technique for cell analysis and separation, which has been extensively applied in detecting plant DNA content, cell cycle and ploidy level. This paper mainly reviewed the current applications of flow cytometry in genome-size, chromosome ploidy and endopolyploidy in Orchidaceae, which might provide references for its further applications in plant crossbreeding, chromosome structure and evolutionary classification, and etc.
  • LI Chenyang, KONG Xiangqiang, DONG Hezhong
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 982-993. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.0982
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    Nitrate is the major forms of nitrogen that plants absorb from the soil, and its uptake and utilization is a highly coordinated and complex process. For the sake of survive in various environmental conditions, plants have evolved suitable nitrate uptake and utilization mechanisms to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions. There are various types of nitrate receptors in plant roots, which can sense different concentrations of external nitrate. The low- or high-affinity nitrate uptake system was activated to absorb nitrate from the environment according to the levels of external nitrate. Once nitrate is taken up into root cells, most of it is transported to shoots for assimilation, and synthesizes macromolecular substances to optimize plant growth. When the nitrate supply is too much for use immediately, the plant can store the excess nitrate into vacuoles and mediate it efflux from vacuoles to the cytosol for assimilation when needed. During plant growth and development, nitrate in the old and mature leaves can be redistributed into developing tissues to promote their growth. Many genes related to nitrate absorption, transportation, storage, assimilation and signaling regulation are activated orderly and work coordinately to absorb and utilize nitrate efficiently. This review summarizes the NRT1 and NRT2 nitrate uptake-related genes and their functions, as well as related transcription factors involved in primary nitrate response and small signal peptides in nitrate signaling transduction and exchange among different tissues. In order to further understand the mechanisms of plant uptake and utilize nitrate, and therefore provides new ideas in increasing nitrogen-use efficiency of crop by breeding and cultivation techniques.

  • Food Irradiation·Food Science
  • ZHOU Tingting, CAO Shaoqian, ZHANG Jing, YE Wenqian, QI Xiangyang
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 994-1001. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.0994
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    In order to explore the impacts of intense pulsed light (IPL) treatment on the storage quality of post-harvest edible fungi, different intensity (28.8, 48.0 and 67.2 mJ·cm-2) of IPL treatment on physiology indices and quality of Agaricus bisporus during stored at 25℃ were investigated. The results indicated IPL treatment could efficiently retard the cap opening, weight loss, browning degree and membrane lipid oxidation of the Agaricus bisporus with the prolongation of storage time, and maintain the original firmness to a certain extent. It could also inhibit the peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activity significantly (P<0.05), and delay the reduction of the total phenol and vitamin C content (P<0.05)at the same time. The Agaricus bisporus treated with 48.0 mJ·cm-2 was found to have the best effectiveness, which total phenol and vitamin C content 39.06% and 53.63% higher than that of the control group, respectively, after 8 days storage. This research provides references for the application of IPL technology in controlling the quality of edible fungi.
  • LI Ping, CHEN Xiao'e, FANG Xubo, LIU Yan, ZHU Lin, YU Hui, GUO Jian, YUAN Liping
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 1002-1011. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1002
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    In order to improve the application performance of Sepia melanin in food, the Sepia pharaonis ink sac was used as raw material to prepare melanin by alkali-protease hydrolyzation, and the effects of homogenization of different dynamic high pressure microfluidization (DHPM) (0、40、80、120、160、200 MPa) on its physical properties. The microstructure was analyzed by infrared spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that DHPM treatment depolymerized sepia melanin aggregates, increased turbidity, reduced average particle size, made it more concentrated and finer distribution, and improved solubility in deionized water and physiological saline. Apparent viscosity and spatial chromaticity values increased under the pressure. DSC analysis showed that the thermal denaturation temperature was 90.70℃, and the enthalpy change value was 0.45 J·g-1 at 120 MPa. At the same time, the storage stability was the best under this pressure. Infrared spectroscopy analysis showed that DHPM treatment formed a strong hydrogen bond between the melanin molecules in a specific range. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the sample particles was the smallest after treatment of 120 MPa. Therefore, DHPM modification technology improved the physical properties and microstructure of Sepia pharaonis melanin and provided a theoretical basis for its application in the food industry.
  • LYU Mingchun, LI Gaoshang, CHEN Yanting, XUAN Shifen, XU Dalun, YANG Wenge
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 1012-1019. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1012
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    In order to study the effect of ultrahigh pressure(UHP)on shelling rate and meat quality of Tegillarca granosa, the appropriate UHP treatment parameters for fresh T. granasa were prelimirarily determined, and the shelling rate, sensory quality, microbial indexes and amino acid composition and its nutritional evaluation were investigated. The results showed that under the conditions of 300 MPa for 5 min (300/5),350 MPa for 3 min or 5 min (350/3, 350/5),400 MPa for 1 min (400/1), the shucking rates reached 100% with high sensory quality. Under these 4 optimized parameters, the whitness of T. granosa meat improved, while there was no significant difference than that in control group. The hardness of texture was also improved, and the adhesiveness, springiness, cohesiveness and resilience were reduced comparing to the control group. After UHP treatment, the aerobic plate count of T. granosa decreased from 5.3×104 CFU·g-1 to 10~100 CFU·g-1, and the total amount of amino acids gradually decreased along with incrase of pressure, especially group of 400/l with fell of 7.58% and tryptophan was not detected. Except 400/1 group, the proteins in the other groups of T. granosa meat were all high quality protein. UHP and heat treatment did not change the first and second restrictive amino acid types of the T. granosa meat, which were still methionine and tryptophan respectively. Considering the effect of UHP on shucking and meat quality of T. granosa, the appropriate process parameters were 300 MPa for 5min or 350 MPa for 3~5 min. This research can provide theoretical guidance for processing T. granosa with UHP.
  • ZHANG Shuwen, LIANG Senmiao, ZHENG Xiliang, ZHU Tingting, REN Haiying, QI Xingjiang
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 1020-1027. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1020
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    In order to certify the variation regularity of fruit color, fruit quality and other related traits, as well as the relation among each indexes, Chinese bayberry cultivar Shuijingzhong (Myrica rubar cv. Shuijingzhong) of ten years old tree was used as test material to determine dynamic changes in growth indexes of fruit during the growth and development period. Three theoretical growth equations were adopted to fit 11 indexes including single fruit weight, lengthwise diameter, broadwise diameter, fruit shape index, L*, a*/b*, citric acid, oxalic acid, glucose, sucrose and fructose. The appropriate growth equation was established based on the fitting results. Meanwhile, the correlation among fruit growth indexes was analyzed. It was indicated that the relation of L*, fruit shape index, citric acid and sucrose were in lines with trinominal equations, the relation of a*/b*, oxalic acid, fructose and glucose were in lines with binomial equations, and the relation of single fruit weight, lengthwise diameter and broadwise diameter are in lines with Logistic equations. During fruit development, positive correlations between a*/b* and single fruit weight, lengthwise diameter, broadwise diameter, glucose, sucrose, fructose and L* were found to be statistically significant, while significant negative correlations between a/band fruit shape index and citric acid were found, oxalic acid was significant negative correlated with L* and a*/b*. This study provided a theoretical foundation for non-destructive detection, simulation and prediction of fruit development.
  • CHEN Xiaofeng, REN Hui, XU Feng, WANG Jing, SUN Meng, WANG Hongfei
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 1028-1037. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1028
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    In order to investigate the effects of flaonoids from Moringa leaves on postharvest kumquats, the inhibition effect and mechanism were studied by in vitro plate inoculation test and in vivo injury inoculation test with Penicillium italicum. The results showed that the flavonoids of moringa leaves significant inhibited Penicillium italicum with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of 4.00 and 8.00 mg·mL-1, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis showed that the flavonoids from leaves of Moringa oleifera could cause the distortion of mycelium, which changed obviously the morphology of Penicillium italicum hyphae. The intracellular morphological structure showed that the flavonoids could destroy the membrane structure and organelles, leading to the outflow of intracellular contents and intracellular hollowing, and causing bacteria death. The results of injury inoculation showed that the treatment of flavonoids from leaves of Moringa oleifera significantly reduced the diameter of kumquat lesions, and maintained the hardness of kumquat, while enhanced the activity of related defense enzymes, such as phenylalaninease (PAL) and chitinase. The activity of pectinase was low, which could enhance the disease resistance of the fruit. It is of great significance for the application of moringa flavone in the storage of citrus fruits after harvest.
  • MIAO Yongmei, JIAN Xing, WANG Yan, XU Ronghua, QIAN Lisheng, YU Qingcai
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 1038-1046. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1038
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    In order to clarify the antioxidant capacity and antioxidant components of B. kwangtungense, bulb extracts were obatained with different solvents(methanol, ethanol, acetone and ethylacetatefour),the antioxidant activities and total flavonoids, total phenols of four extracts were tested, and their correlation was investigated. Results showed that: The content of total phenol was higher than total flavonoids, and ethanol was the best solvent for two ingredients. Methanol extract had the highest scavenging ability to hydroxyl radical and chelation power to Fe2+, while the scavenging effect to DPPH free radical ability was the weakest. Total reducing power and scavenging ability to superoxide anions of acetone extract were the highest, and the scavenging ability to hydroxyl radical was the weakest. The scavenging to DPPH free radical ability of ethylacetate extract was the strongest, while it had the weakest reducing power, scavenging ability to superoxide anions and chelation ability to Fe2+. Except DPPH free radical, the other four antixidant indicators had postive correlations with total flavonoids or total phenols(0.185<r<0.969, and the correlation between total reducing power and total flavonoids was significant. These results provided a reference for the extraction, further development and utilization of the antioxidants in B. kwangtungense.
  • LU Mengnan, LI Lanfang, JING Yulei, SONG Wei, LI Caiyan, QIAN Guoying
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 1047-1053. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1047
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    The objective of the present study was to optimize the extraction condition of collagen hydrolysates (CH) from the carapace of Chinese soft-shelled turtle (Pelodiscus sinensis) and to evaluate its antioxidant activities in vitro. The results showed that by using single factor experiment the optimum condition was established when pepsin addition, pH value and enzymatic hydrolysis temperature were 4 000 Užg-1, 2.5, and 35℃, respectively. After dialysis, the CH fraction with molecular weight of less than 50 kDa was obtained and was shown to have the best antioxidant activity. Then this fraction was separated into 2 fractions by Sephadex G-75 gel chromatography, among which GP-2 fraction has the highest free radical (DPPH·, OH· and O2-·) scavenging ability, Afterwards, another 2 fractions were also obtained from GP-2 fraction by ion exchange chromatography. The in vitro antioxidant activity of P1 fraction was higher than that of GP-2 and the free radical (DPPH·, OH· and O2-· scavenging rates of P1 were 81.67%, 65.45% and 6.78%, respectively. The molecular weight of collagen hydrolysate P1 fraction was determined to be 40 kDa by SDS-PAGE. This study provided the theoretical basis for the development and utilization of turtle carapace as well as the researches for new antioxidants from turtles.
  • TANG Haiqing, GU Xiaojun, CHEN Zuman, FAN Mengxuan
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 1054-1060. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1054
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    In order to investigate the capability of electronic tongue to distinguish manufacturing progress and predict physicochemical properties of cooking wines, the qualitative and quantitative analysis models of 54 cooking wines were established using electronic tongue and physical and chemical detection methods, combined with different statistical methods. The results showed that principal component analysis (PCA) could be used to differentiate cooking wines from different types of production processes. The first principal component was the signal of fresh taste flavour sensor with the contribution of 62.4%, and the second one was the sour taste with a contribution of 33.2%. The soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) could be used to accurately discriminate brewed and prepared cooking wines. The discrimination power (DP) of each sensor was more than 5, and the recognition rate was 100%.The partial least squares (PLS) method was used to fit the sensor signal with the results of the trade standard method. The RPD values of total acid, amino acid nitrogen and salt were 12.1, 6.5 and 14.1, respectively. The established models exhibited good effect, and could be used for accurate calibration and prediction. That of alcohol content was 2.7. The model could be predicted but was not stable enough. The results of this study provided theoretical and practical basis for the application of electronic tongue in the quality discrimination and detection of cooking wines.
  • Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology & Environment·Physiology
  • TONG Wenbin, GUO Bin, LIN Yicheng, LIU Chen, SONG Jianzhong
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 1061-1069. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1061
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    In order to assess the input-output patterns of heavy metals of agricultural land, a typical paddy soil polluted by cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) in Quzhou, Zhejiang province was investigated. Four input pathways (atmospheric deposition, irrigation, fertilizer and pesticide) and two output pathways (rice straw and grain removal) were considered so as to figure out the Cd and Pb balance throughout the topsoil. Results showed that atmospheric deposition flux has no difference among seasonal, and the annual inputs of Cd and Pb were 3.18 and 54.46 g·hm-2, accounting for 34.98% and 34.95% of the total inputs, respectively. Irrigation was an important source of Cd and Pb, responsible for 5.76 and 100.62 g·hm-2, 63.37% and 64.57% of the total inputs, respectively. The average annual input of Cd and Pb by fertilizer application were 0.15 and 0.74 g·hm-2, accounting for only 1.65% and 0.47% of the total inputs, respectively. Whereas, Cd and Pb input by pesticides were negligible. Based on double-cropping rice mode in this region, the annual outputs of Cd and Pb were 10.69 and 41.74 g·hm-2 through the harvest of rice straw and grain. In brief, annual balance results demonstrated that the input of Cd was in-line with the output of Cd in this surveyed area, while soil Pb still remained input status. Control strategies were suggested such as monitoring and purification of the irrigation water, and avoiding direct returning of rice straw to the field. This work emphasizes the significance of rice straw removal for heavy metal contaminated soil, which is helpful in developing strategies to reduce heavy metal inputs into agricultural land.
  • ZANG Ming, LEI Hongjun, LIU Xin, PAN Hongwei, XU Jianxin
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 1070-1078. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1070
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    The effect of oxygen diffusion rate in soil and crop nutrient utilization under different oxygation techniques were investigated with winter wheat as a test crop. Four irrigation treatments were set up, including venturi aerated irrigation (VAI), 15 mg·L-1 hydrogen peroxides 3000 (HP3K), 15 mg·L-1 hydrogen peroxides 0030 (HP30) and a non-aerated water (CK) through subsurface drip irrigation. Results show that, compared to the non-aerated treatment (CK) soil oxygen diffusion rate increase in 48 hours after irrigation under oxygation treatments. Among which, soil oxygen diffusion rate at jointing stage, heading stage and filling stage in VAI treatment increase by 60.45%, 73.77% and 87.88% than that in CK treatment (P<0.05), soil oxygen diffusion rate at the jointing stage and heading stage in HP30 treatment increase by 21.37% and 23.61%, respectively. Oxygation treatments promote wheat yield. Compared to CK, the yield under VAI and HP30 treatments increase by 36.27% and 23.37% (P<0.05), and the water-use efficiency increase by 38.98% and 21.47%, respectively (P<0.05). Meanwhile, oxygation enhances wheat nutrient utilization. Compared to CK, the wheat N, P, K uptake in VAI treatment increase by 53.23%, 107.41% and 72.94%, respectively (P<0.05), the wheat P, K uptake in HP3K treatment increase by 39.51% and 56.19% (P<0.05), and the wheat N, P uptake in HP30 treatment increase by 50.32% and 29.63% (P<0.05). The nutrient utilization efficiency of N under VAI and HP30 treatments increase by 43.64% and 34.55% (P<0.05), and N partitioning ratio in grains under VAI and HP3K treatments increase by 8.33% and 6.94% compared to CK (P<0.05). Statistical analysis shows a significantly positive correlations between oxygen diffusion rate and crop N and P utilization (P<0.05), and significantly positive correlations between grain N accumulation and crop yield under VAI and HP30 treatments. In conclusion, oxygation improves oxygen diffusion rate in the root zone, promotes crop nutrient utilization, and increases crop yield and water use efficiency. Among the three oxygation treatments, VAI ranges in the top one. The research results provide theoretical basis and technical support for aerated irrigation technology.
  • ZHONG Xuemei, WU Yuanfan, PENG Jianwei, LU Wenlu, SONG Siming, TANG Qiyuan, ZHAN Dongzhi, ZHOU Xuan
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 1079-1087. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1079
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    In order to guarantee the precision of rice fertilization, the performance and economic benefit of mechanical transplanting and synchronized one-time side-deep fertilization with reduced rate are revealed to select the optimum formulated fertilizer achieving the low-cost and high efficient utilization of nitrogen (N) fertilizer for double cropping rice. Field experiments were conducted using soil-tested formulated fertilization rate with precise fertilizer distributor to study the effects of one-time precision fertilization on grain yield and economic benefit in typical growing regions, and investigate the relationships of yield components combined with yield. Results showed that yield, yield components together with economic benefits of machine-transplanted double cropping rice were significantly affected by the N application rate in side-deep fertilization and rice variety. The yield and economic benefit of machine-transplanted early-rice with one-time N application rate reduced by 10%~30% is 16.5%~20.2%, and 26.4%~31.8% higher compared with those of conventional fertilization, and the numbers of its effective panicle, total spikelet and total grain increased by 5.5%~7.5%, 8.2%~25.3% and 8.3%~27.6%, respectively. The yield and economic benefit of late rice increased by 3.9%~11.1% and 12.6%~20.9%, and the numbers of its effective panicle, total spikelet, and total grain increased by 15.8%~22.5%, 16.8%~26.5% and 14.0%~31.6%, respectively. The optimum treatment was obtained with a reduction of 20%~30% in N application rate. With the reduction of N application rate, the yield, economic benefit, effective panicle, total spikelet, and total grain of double-season rice reduced after increased first. Regression analysis indicated that the maximum yield of early rice (8 538.2 kg·hm-2) and late rice (7 459.1 kg·hm-2) were obtained in side-deep fertilization with the N application rate of 130.0 kg N·hm-2 and 161.5 kg N hm-2. Path analysis showed that effective panicle had the highest direct effect on grain yield of double cropping rice. In conclusion, the integration and optimization of fertilization technology and machine-transplanting technique can effectively reduce N fertilizer application rate, which is conducive to the formation of effective panicle so as to improve grain sink and make the production of double cropping rice fertilizer-saving, labor-saving and more productive. To provide theoretical support for the application of Machine-transplanting Technique with Synchronized One-time precision fertilization technology.
  • XU Fuxian, JIANG Peng, ZHOU Xingbing, LIU Mao, ZHANG Lin, XIONG Hong, ZHU Yongchuan, GUO Xiaoyi
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 1088-1096. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1088
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    In order to explore the early diagnostic techniques for lodging prevention in high-yielding paddy fields, a new high-yielding hybrid rice variety "Rong 18 You 1015", which was widely popularized, was used to design a three-factor complete factor experiment in 2015-2016, and to study the effects of Paclobutracol spraying on rice yield and lodging resistance under different dense-fertilizer population. The results showed that with the increase of nitrogen application rate and transplanting density, rice yield increased and plant lodging resistance decreased. The yield of 150 kg hm-2 N application and 187.5 million holes hm-2 transplanted was higher. The application of Paclobutrazol in different dense-fertilizer population had significant effects on yield and lodging resistance of plants. After application of paclobutrazol, plant resistance increased and yield decreased with the decrease of grain number per panicle. However, the effect of Paclobutrazol on yield was different under different dense-fertilizer treatments. The application of Paclobutrazol at the highest seedling stage of rice significantly reduced the height of plant center of gravity, bending moment and lodging index, but significantly increased the breaking strength Average number of grains per panicle decreased by 5.24-7.87 grains. The effects of Paclobutrazol on yield were as follows: yield decreased with the decrease of grain number per panicle under low nitrogen application rate; yield difference was not significant under medium nitrogen application rate; plant lodging was not observed under high nitrogen application rate; grain filling was normal; and yield was increased due to high seed setting rate and 1 000-grain weight. In summary, the application of Paclobutrazol at the highest seedling stage in paddy fields with high fertility level and nitrogen application rate is conducive to the improvement of rice yield and the control of late lodging.
  • WANG Xiaomin, TANG Qiyuan, ZHENG Huabin, MO Wenwei, YANG Jianbo
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 1097-1105. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1097
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    The objective of this study was to seek effect of yellow-seed percentage on seed vigor, and determine the optimum harvesting time of hybrid rice seed based on sensory index. Field experiments were conducted with varieties Shenliangyou1813, Longliangyou1813, Yliangyou1128, Chuangliangyouhuazhan, Ⅱyou838, and seed vigor, moisture content, 1000-grain weight and storage substance content were measured among different yellow-seed percentage populations constructed by different harvesting time. The results revealed that a significant difference was observed in the increasing rate of yellow-seed percentage among different varieties. With the increasing of yellow-seed percentage, seed vigor increased firstly and then kept stable while seed moisture decreased firstly and then kept stable. Additionally, 1000-grain weight increased gradually, but an insignificant difference was observed. Moreover, seed amylose content, total starch content, protein content and soluble sugar content increased firstly and then kept stable. When the yellow-seed percentage ranged from 75% to 90%, germination percentage, germination energy, germination index and vigor index kept at high level, and an insignificant difference was obtained in both seed moisture and 1000-grain weight. Moreover, a significantly positive correlation was observed between yellow-seed percentage and germination percentage and vigor index (R2=0.870 3** and R2=0.664 0**, respectively). A significantly negative correlation was obtained between yellow-seed percentage and seed moisture (R2=0.842 4**), and there was no obvious correlation between yellow-seed percentage and 1000-grain weight (R2=0.197 2). There was no correlation between yellow-seed percentage and storage substance content, but a significant correlation was obtained between seed vigor and storage substance content. Therefore, yellow-seed percentage (75%~90%) could be recommended as sensory index predicting the optimum harvesting time during hybrid rice seed production with high vigor. Moreover, these results in this study provided references for hybrid rice seed production with high vigor.
  • JIN Yazhong, CHEN Yewen, LONG Shanshan, LI Kangle, MA Xiaowei, HE Shuping, QI Hongyan
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 1106-1112. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1106
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    To study the effects of chicken manure and chicken manure co-applied with urea on carbohydrate accumulation and activity of enzymes related to carbohydrate metabolism in oriental melon, this experiment used urea treatment as control and the oriental melon cultivar DX108 as experimental materials. Under same amount of nitrogen, the activities of sucrose phosphate synthase (SPS), sucrose synthase (SS, sucrose synthesis and decomposition direction), acid invertase and neutral invertase was analyzed.The results showed that compared with urea treatment chicken manure, chicken manure and urea treatment significantly increased the accumulation of fructose, sucrose and glucose in melon fruits during fruit development, especially improving promoted the sugar accumulation in mature fruits. The results of correlation analysis indicated that the sucrose accumulation in melon fruits treated with urea alone was negatively related to acid invertase(AI) activity, and the glucose accumulation was positively related to the enzyme activity of SPS and SS in the direction of synthesis. However, the accumulations of sucrose, glucose and fructose in fruits treated with chicken manure plus urea or chicken manure were mainly positively correlated with SPS and NI activity, and were significantly negatively correlated with the enzyme activity in the direction of SS decomposition, while the glucose accumulation in fruits treated with chicken manure plus urea was significantly correlated with SPS and NI activity. To sum up, all the studies in the experiment suggested that chicken manure or chicken manure plus urea treatment improved the enzyme activity of SPS and NI, and reduced the enzyme activity of SS in decomposition direction, promoting the accumulation of carbohydrate. This study provided a theoretical basis for the application of organic fertilizer instead of chemical nitrogen fertilizer in melon production.
  • WANG Feng, WANG Xinyue, ZHU Qianglong, YANG Youxin, WANG Qiang, WU Caijun
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 1113-1118. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1113
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    In order to explore effect of cinnamic acid on roots of cowpea, two different resistant varieties cowpea TZ30 and ZQJ6 were used to treat with 0.2 mmol·L-1 cinnamic acid under hydroponic condition,and the physiological and biochemical indexes of the roots were measured and analyzed. Results showed that Cinnamic acid treatment had obvious toxic effects on both cowpeas,the total root length, total root surface area, total root volume, and total number of root tips of the two cowpea species were significantly decreased by cinnamic acid treatment, TZ30 show less decrease, reflecting higher resistance of TZ30. The mean root diameter of TZ30 increased without significant difference, and the average root diameter of ZQJ6 increased with significant difference, reflecting higher resistance of TZ30, which indicated that the influence of cinnamic acid on cowpea roots was mainly presented in young roots. The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX) on roots of the two kinds of cowpea were increased significantly, suggesting that cowpea resistance the effect of cinnamic acid by increasing the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The activity of antioxidant enzymes of TZ30 improved higher than ZQJ6, which means that cinnamic acid resistance of TZ30 is higher than ZQJ6. Both varieties of cowpea showed significant increase in relative electrical conductivity and significant decrease in soluble protein content, indicating that cinnamic acid destroyed cell structure of cowpea root system. Among them, TZ30 root system showed more increase in relative electrical conductivity and more decrease in soluble protein than ZQJ6, indicating that TZ30 cell structure suffered more serious damage. The results of this study analyzed the toxic effect of cinnamic acid from the main root secretions of cowpea on the root systems of different resistant cowpea varieties, and provided a theoretical basis for preventing and overcoming the autotoxic effects of cowpea.
  • MI Baobin, LIU Biqiong, ZHOU Huoqiang, DAI Xiongze, WANG Duanhua, LIU Feng, WU Fangfang
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2020, 34(5): 1119-1127. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1119
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    To study the accumulation characteristics of radish to cadmium (Cd), arsenic (As), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg) and chromium (Cr) in soil, pot experiments under greenhouse were conducted on nine different radishes genotypes in this paper. The accumulation characteristics were analyzed by combined the determination of heavy metal content in their different parts, biological concentration factor and transfer factor of heavy metals, and individual pollution index and nemero comprehensive pollution index. Results indicated that the accumulation abilities of five heavy metals of underground parts in radishes followed the order of Cd > Pb > Cr > Hg > As, and the upward migrations of five heavy metals were more likely to occur, and thus the aerial part in radish was more vulnerable to heavy metal pollution than its underground part. Moreover, results also showed that both radish genotypes and varieties of heavy metals can significantly affect the accumulation of heavy metals, and the interaction between them was obvious. It was found that chunbulao radish could be selected as a potential low-heavy metal-accumulated radish genotype with a higher yield. This study provides guidance on safety planting and consumption.