Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences ›› 2020, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (5): 1079-1087.DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.1079

• Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology & Environment·Physiology • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of Machine-transplanting Technique With Synchronized One-time Precision Fertilization on Grain Yield and Economic Benefit of Double-cropping Rice

ZHONG Xuemei1, WU Yuanfan2, PENG Jianwei1,*, LU Wenlu3, SONG Siming4, TANG Qiyuan1, ZHAN Dongzhi3, ZHOU Xuan5,*   

  1. 1Hunan Agricultural University, Changsha, Hunan 410128;
    2Hunan Provincial Agriculture Committee, Changsha, Hunan 410005;
    23 Miluo Agricultural Bureau, Miluo, Hunan 414400;
    4Hunan Dragon Boat Agricultural Machinery Co. Ltd., Miluo, Hunan 414400;
    5Soil and Fertilizer Institute of Hunan Province, Changsha, Hunan 410125
  • Received:2018-09-20 Online:2020-05-10 Published:2020-03-23

机插同步一次性精量施肥对双季稻产量及经济效益的影响

钟雪梅1, 吴远帆2, 彭建伟1,*, 卢文璐3, 宋思明4, 唐启源1, 湛冬至3, 周旋5,*   

  1. 1湖南农业大学,湖南 长沙 410128;
    2湖南省农业农村厅,湖南 长沙 410005;
    3汨罗市农业局,湖南 汨罗 414400;
    4湖南龙舟农机股份有限公司,湖南 汨罗 414400;
    5湖南省土壤肥料研究所,湖南 长沙 410125
  • 通讯作者: *彭建伟,男,教授,主要从事植物营养生理生态研究。E-mail: 314967900@qq.com;周旋,男,助理研究员,主要从事肥料与养分资源管理研究。E-mail: zhouxuan_123@126.com。同为通讯作者。
  • 作者简介:钟雪梅,女,主要从事植物营养生理生态研究。E-mail: 742650555@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划课题(2017YFD200703-3),国家水稻产业技术体系(CARS-01-26)

Abstract: In order to guarantee the precision of rice fertilization, the performance and economic benefit of mechanical transplanting and synchronized one-time side-deep fertilization with reduced rate are revealed to select the optimum formulated fertilizer achieving the low-cost and high efficient utilization of nitrogen (N) fertilizer for double cropping rice. Field experiments were conducted using soil-tested formulated fertilization rate with precise fertilizer distributor to study the effects of one-time precision fertilization on grain yield and economic benefit in typical growing regions, and investigate the relationships of yield components combined with yield. Results showed that yield, yield components together with economic benefits of machine-transplanted double cropping rice were significantly affected by the N application rate in side-deep fertilization and rice variety. The yield and economic benefit of machine-transplanted early-rice with one-time N application rate reduced by 10%~30% is 16.5%~20.2%, and 26.4%~31.8% higher compared with those of conventional fertilization, and the numbers of its effective panicle, total spikelet and total grain increased by 5.5%~7.5%, 8.2%~25.3% and 8.3%~27.6%, respectively. The yield and economic benefit of late rice increased by 3.9%~11.1% and 12.6%~20.9%, and the numbers of its effective panicle, total spikelet, and total grain increased by 15.8%~22.5%, 16.8%~26.5% and 14.0%~31.6%, respectively. The optimum treatment was obtained with a reduction of 20%~30% in N application rate. With the reduction of N application rate, the yield, economic benefit, effective panicle, total spikelet, and total grain of double-season rice reduced after increased first. Regression analysis indicated that the maximum yield of early rice (8 538.2 kg·hm-2) and late rice (7 459.1 kg·hm-2) were obtained in side-deep fertilization with the N application rate of 130.0 kg N·hm-2 and 161.5 kg N hm-2. Path analysis showed that effective panicle had the highest direct effect on grain yield of double cropping rice. In conclusion, the integration and optimization of fertilization technology and machine-transplanting technique can effectively reduce N fertilizer application rate, which is conducive to the formation of effective panicle so as to improve grain sink and make the production of double cropping rice fertilizer-saving, labor-saving and more productive. To provide theoretical support for the application of Machine-transplanting Technique with Synchronized One-time precision fertilization technology.

Key words: double cropping rice, machine-transplanted rice, side-deep fertilization, grain yield, economic benefit

摘要: 为保证水稻施肥的准确性,揭示水稻机插与同步一次性侧深减量施肥的应用效果,筛选适宜施肥配方,本试验在典型双季稻种植区,以测土配方施肥量为依据,结合精量施肥机,研究机插同步一次性精量施肥对双季稻产量及经济效益的影响,并探讨各构成因素间及其与产量的相互关系。结果表明,侧深施N量和稻季品种对机插双季稻产量、产量构成因素及经济效益具有显著或极显著影响。与常规施肥处理相比,机插同步一次性减N 10%~30%处理的早稻产量和经济效益分别提高16.5%~20.2%和26.4%~31.8%,有效穗数、总颖花数和总实粒数分别提高5.5%~7.5%、8.2%~25.3%和8.3%~27.6%;晚稻产量和经济效益分别提高3.9%~11.1%和12.6%~20.9%,有效穗数、总颖花数和总实粒数分别提高15.8%~22.5%、16.8%~26.5%和14.0%~31.6%。其中,以机插同步一次性减N 20%~30%处理效果较好。水稻机插同步一次性精量施肥随着施N量的降低,双季稻产量、经济效益及有效穗数、总颖花数和总实粒数呈先升高后降低的趋势。回归分析表明,早、晚稻侧深施肥N用量分别为130.0和161.5 kg·hm-2时达到最大值,即8 538.2和7 459.1 kg·hm-2。通径分析表明,有效穗数对早、晚稻籽粒产量的直接效应最高。综上所述,通过施肥技术和机插模式的集成与优化,能够有效减少稻田N肥施入,有利于形成有效穗数,扩充籽粒库容,从而达到双季稻生产节肥、省工、增产的目的,为机插同步一次性精量施肥技术应用提供理论支撑。

关键词: 双季稻, 机插稻, 侧深施肥, 产量, 经济效益