To explore effects of light intensity, light quality, nitrogen, and phosphorus on nutrient accumulations inNannochloropsis oceanica, this study was designed into four parts as followed. The light intensity was set as 20, 80, 140 and 200 μmol photons·m-2·s-1, respectively, in the light intensity experiment. In the part of light quality, ratios of red-blue-green light were adjusted to 100%, 50% and 0%, respectively, according to the RGB principle. Nitrogen concentration was set as 55.40, 13.85, 3.46 and 1.73 mg·L-1 in the nitrogen experiment, respectively. Phosphorus concentration was set to 8.96, 2.24, 0.56 and 0.28 mg·L-1 in the phosphorus experiment, respectively. The initial inoculation density was unified and the composition of fatty acids, pigment, protein, and soluble sugar were measured after 25 days. At the light intensity of 200 μmol photons·m-2·s-1, N. oceanicaobtained the fastest growth rate, the highest biomass; besides, the concentration of protein (5.17 mg·mL-1), and soluble sugar (2.40 mg·mL-1) is the greatest. At the light intensity of 20 μmol photons·m-2·s-1, the ratio of chlorophyll a was the highest. Overall, the contents of protein and soluble sugar increased with light intensity. The light quality experiment showed that the red light had a certain effect on promoting the growth and soluble sugar accumulation, while blue and green lights did not. Results also suggested that the green light was conducive to β-carotene accumulation, but 100% green light significantly inhibited the growth of N. oceanica. At the nitrogen concentration of 55.40 mg·L-1, the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) of N. oceanicareached the maximum, which were 68.23% and 20.50%, respectively. With the nitrogen concentration declining, the growth rate, protein, and soluble sugar inN. oceanicasignificantly decreased. Similarly, with the phosphorus concentration declining, the growth rate and protein content significantly decreased. The phosphorus concentration of 2.24 mg·L-1 was beneficial to soluble sugar accumulation. This study provides theoretical support for optimizing the cultivation of N. oceanica under different environmental factors, which has certain practical significance and economic value.