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  • Food Irradiation·Food Science
    HAO Pengfei, LIN Baogang, REN Yun, ZHU Jianfang, HUAI Yan, HUA Shuijin
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(1): 69-77.

    To clarify the effects of storage time and low storage temperature on the nutrition quality of rapeseed stem, two oil-vegetable rapeseed cultivars Zheyou 51 and Zheyouza 108 were used as materials. 3 storage times (stored at 4 ℃ for 1, 2, 3 d) and 3 storage temperatures (stored at -20, -40, -80 ℃ for 10 d) were set, and the contents of sugars, vitamins, cellulose and lignin during storage were analyzed. The results showed that vitamin C and vitamin B1 showed a rising trend first and then falling in two varieties, while vitamin B6, fructose, sucrose and cellulose showed an upward trend with the extension of storage time under 4 ℃. Vitamin E were raised in Zheyouza 108, while it increased first and then decreased in Zheyou 51. The starch content gradually decreased in two varieties. Paraffin section staining results showed that the cellulose area in Zheyou 51 and lignification area in Zheyouza 108 were increased with the extension of storage time. Under different storage temperatures, the content of all the nutrition except cellulose were the highest in fresh sample, while cellulose contents reached the highest in -20 ℃. Fructose, sucrose and cellulose contents can match the fresh level at -80 ℃ in two varieties, while the content of vitamin B1 and E were better under -40 ℃ in Zheyou 51. In conclusion, the appropriate shelf life of rapeseed stem should be within 2 d when storing at 4 ℃. For low storage temperature, -40 ℃ and -80 ℃ were better than -20 ℃. The results of this research provides a theoretical basis for daily storage and consumption of rapeseed stem and the multi-functional utilization of rapeseed.

  • Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology
    CHEN Yibo, YANG Qin, WANG Jingjing, MIAO Zhengyan, ZHAO Wenlong, JIA Xucun, DONG Pengfei, WANG Qun
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(3): 594-605.

    In order to explore the changes of root morphological distribution, nutrient accumulation and yield under different root configuration maize varieties intercropping, monoculture and intercropping treatments were conducted both in the field and pot-cultivation to study the variation characteristics of intercropping of maize (Zea mays L.) on root traits, spatial distribution, nutrient accumulation and grain yield, two maize varieties JS501 (small root angle type) and LY16 (large root angle type) with different root system architecture were used as experimental materials. The results showed that the total root length, total root surface area, total root volume and root diameter of maize population under intercropping treatments increased by 10.19%, 19.55% and 15.95% on average compared with monoculture treatments, respectively. But there was no significant change in root diameter between intercropping and monoculture treatment. In 0~20 cm soil layer, the total root length, total surface area and total volume of maize in intercropping were 15.27%, 21.82% and 9.44% higher than those in monoculture, and 12.95%, 9.18% and 20.31% higher than monoculture at 20~40 cm, respectively. Intercropping enlarged the horizontal distribution of JS501 root and extends outward by 5 cm, deepened root vertical distribution by 10 cm in intercropping treatments and increased root length density by 26.03% on average in 40~60 cm soil layer. Intercropping also significantly improved root activities by 27.83% compared with monoculture. The accumulation of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium in intercropping population increased by 18.27%, 14.79% and 15.75% on average compared with monoculture, respectively. Land equivalent ratio was more than 1 under intercropping and dry matter weight and grain yield were increased significantly by 11.03% and 15.36% on average compared with monoculture, respectively. Path analysis showed that total root surface areas significantly affected the accumulation of N and K, which indirectly affected dry matter accumulation and 100-grain weight, and significantly increased grain yield under intercropping conditions. However, the correlation coefficient between factors in monoculture was lower than that in intercropping. In summary, intercropping changed the spatial distribution of maize roots with different root architecture and increased the proportion of roots in deep soil. It reshaped root architecture in 40~60 cm soil layer, improved root activities and make use of the root spatial complementary. These characteristics promoted the nutrient accumulation and increased grain yield. This study provided a theoretical and practical strategy for high efficiency of nutrient resources and sustainable agriculture.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    ZHANG Rong, CHEN Shiqiang, LIU Jianfeng, WANG Jianhua, FAN Dejia, HAN Yan, HE Zhentian
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(3): 433-441.

    To clarify the molecular mechanism of spike of mutant sui1, the phenotype identification and the transcriptome analyses of rachis and peduncle in different growth stages (tooting stage as T1 and filling stage as T2) were performed. The results showed that the spike mutant had shorter length of rachis and peduncle, lower plant height and aggravated incidence of FHB. Results of transcriptome analyses showed that at the same period, the differentially expressed genes between mutant and parent in peduncle was more than that in rachis, and there were more differentially expressed genes at tooting stage than at filling stage in rachis. A total of 2 526 differentially expressed genes was screened, among which 890 were up-regulated, 1 636 were down-regulated. The study of gene ontology classification found that genes annotated with molecular functions in different tissues were equally enriched and most of them were focused on ATP binding. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that plant-pathogen interaction pathway had the most enriched genes. The highest enrichment factors of rachis in different stages were carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms. The highest enrichment factor of peduncle in different tissues was photosynthesis-antenna proteins pathway. From plant-pathogen interaction pathway, 160 related genes were selected. There were 63 genes related to the defense response (39%), 21 genes related to protein kinase activity (13%) and 18 genes related to ADP binding(11%). It is speculated that these genes may be important for the rachis and spike type of wheat mutant sui1. This study provides data support for further exploring the molecular mechanism and gene regulation network of wheat spike type variation in the future, and also provides important information for the wheat yield and disease resistance.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    YU Miao, CHEN Bingru, SHI Guishan, FENG Yongqi, YANG Yongzhi, LI Haiqing, TANG Yujie, WANG Nai
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(1): 1-7.

    The purpose of this experiment is to determine the optimal concentration and time of EMS treatment of grain sorghum, and to create new germplasm of grain sorghum. In this study, the parental lines 2055B and 10125 of grain sorghum were treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) with different times and concentrations, and investigated the effects of EMS mutagenesis on agronomic traits such as seedling emergence, leaf color, leaf shape, panicle shape, fertility and growth period. The results showed that the emergence rate, seedling survival rate and seed setting rate of the two grain sorghum parent lines decreased with the increase of treatment time and concentration, while the mutation rate increased with the increase of treatment time and concentration.The same level of treatment had different inhibitory effects on the two parents, and the inhibitory effects of the restorer line 10125 on the emergence rate, seedling rate and seed setting rate were lower than those of the maintainer line 2055B. Considering the emergence rate, seed setting rate and mutation rate, the optimal mutagenesis treatment time and concentration of 2055B were 14 h and 0.25%, and the optimal mutagenesis treatment time and concentration of 10125 were 14 h and 0.3%. We obtained mutant material by observing, identifying and screening M2 phenotypes, such as early maturity, dwarf, tiller, and etc. And a mutant library of grain sorghum was preliminary constructed, which can provide new germplasm and basic materials for sorghum breeding and functional gene mapping.

  • Food Irradiation·Food Science
    WU Di, ZHANG Longfei, WANG Mengyuan, YE Hongli, TIAN Liangliang, SHI Yongfu
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(3): 569-576.

    To clarify the current situation of heavy metal content in the muscles of commercially available freshwater fish in Hubei, Guangdong, Henan and Heilongjiang provinces, 133 samples of 11 species of freshwater fish were collected from September to October 2021 in 11 cities and districts the above four provinces, Concentrations of chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), total arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) in muscle were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results of the pollution evaluation according to the National Standard for Food Safety Limits for Contaminants in Food (GB 2762-2017) showed that the five heavy metals Cr, Cu, Cd, Hg and Pb did not exceed the limits in the tested samples, while the content of As in freshwater Lateolabrax japonicus and Channa argus exceeded the limit (0.1 mg·kg-1), with levels of 0.182~0.738 mg·kg-1 and 0.180~0.628 mg·kg-1, respectively.Both of them were cumulatively significantly different (P<0.05) with other freshwater fishes. Samples with total As content above 0.1 mg·kg-1 were further tested for inorganic arsenic by liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (LC-AFS). The results were all non-detect, indicating that their inorganic arsenic content was in a very low percentage of the total arsenic content. The single pollution index and integrated pollution index method were used to evaluate the contamination status and variability of the six heavy metal elements in the tested freshwater fish, and the results showed that a low risk of heavy metal contamination in currently commercially freshwater fish in the four provinces, providing a reference for clarifying the quality and safety of freshwater fish in these regions and carrying out aquatic product safety assessment.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    FANG Yuanpeng, WEI Jianming, LI Yunzhou
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(2): 230-240.

    Tomato brown rugose fruit virus (ToBRFV) belongs to the genus Tobamovirus in the Virgaviridae family and is classified as a quarantine virus in China, posing a serious threat to the safety of tomato production. Signal transduction system plays an important role in plant disease resistance, and phospholipid signaling is crucial in the process of extracellular resistance signal transduction. Phospholipase C (PLC) is critical in the transmembrane signaling of the phospholipid signaling system. In this study, we first identified 10 tomato PLC genes based on bioinformatics, including seven phosphati-dylinositol-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) and three non-specific phospholipase C (Non-specifc -PLC, NPC), the seven PI-PLC PLC proteins have three core structural domains (PLC_X c, PLC_Y c, C2) and an EF_hand-like structural domain, and the three NPC proteins only have a phosphoesterase structural domain. 10 tomato PLC proteins can be divided into seven branches according to their structural similarity, namely NPC1, NPC2, NPC6, PI-PLC2, PI-PLC3, PI-PLC4 and PI-PLC6. In addition, the 10 tomato PLC secondary structures were similar in proportion, but there were significant differences in tertiary structures. Co-linearity analysis showed that there were 3, 12 and 16 pairs of co-linear relationships between the distribution of tomato PLC genes and rice, Arabidopsis and Raymond-type cotton PLC genes. Finally, to clarify which tomato PLCs are involved in the plant defense response against ToBRFV, this study examined the relative expression levels of the PLC gene family after ToBRFV inoculation by transcriptome sequencing, and the results showed that SlNPC1SlNPC6 and SlPLC4 were expressed at higher levels in the ToBRFV-inoculated samples, while the expression levels of other PLC genes were reduced after ToBRFV inoculation. This study lays the technical and theoretical foundation for tomato ToBRFV resistance research and breeding.

  • Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology
    CAO Xiaoqing, LI Lu, ZHANG Fengwei, DAI Fei, ZHANG Fangyuan, LI Xiangyang, QIAO Weihao
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(5): 1076-1087.

    Mulching technique is a widely used agricultural technology. The traditional plastic film currently in use brings huge economic benefits, but also induces serious ecological pollution problems and affects the sustainable development of agriculture, so the development of environmentally degradable mulching films is an inevitable trend. This study systematically describes the research progress and application status of the preparation materials, preparation technologies and products of photodegradable mulching film, biodegradable mulching film, photo/biodegradable mulching film, liquid mulching film and plant-fiber mulching film at home and abroad, as well as the advantages and shortcomings of the five types of degradable mulching films, and provides an outlook on the research direction and development prospects of plant-fiber mulching film. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for further development of green, environmentally friendly and completely biodegradable agricultural mulching films to promote green and sustainable development of agriculture.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    WANG Yixue, HAO Yaoshan, ZHANG Huanhuan, DONG Yanhui, WANG Xiaoqing, WU Shenjie
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(1): 42-50.

    Stress associated proteins (SAPs) are a group of A20/AN1 zinc-finger domain-containing proteins which are mainly involved in response to abiotic stresses in plants. In order to explore the function of TaSAP12-D in response to salt stress, a stress associated protein gene designated TaSAP12-D was cloned from wheat (Trticum aestivum L.) cultivar Hanxuan 10. The TaSAP12-D::GFP fusion protein construct was transferred into tobacco leavesthrough Agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transfromation for subcellular localization. Quantitative real-time PCR was performed to analyze the expression patterns consisting of different tissues and leaves with NaCl treatment. To identify and analysis of salt-tolerance of TaSAP12-D, transgenic Arabidopsis plants were generated by floral infiltration. The results indicated that the full-length sequence of TaSAP12-D gene was 519 bp, encoding a 172-amino acid protein. The predicted relative molecular weight of the protein was 18.41 kDa and the isoelectric point was 9.21. Subcellular localization showed that TaSAP12-D was located in the nucleus and cytoplasm in tobacco leaf cells. The expression of TaSAP12-D was detected in different tissues, including plumule, root and leaf at the germination and seedling stages, and the highest expression occurred in the leaf tissues at the seedling stage. Furthermore, the transcript levels of TaSAP12-D were inducible by salt stress. Under treatment of 150 mmol·L-1 NaCl, the survival rate of transgenic Arabidopsis plants was significantly higher than that of control. Overexpression of TaSAP12-D in Arabidopsis results in enhanced salt tolerance. In addition, the expression of salt stress-related genes (AtP5CS1AtRD29AAtLEAAtSOS1AtNHX1 and AtHKT) was significantly upregulated in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. It is speculated that TaSAP12-D can improve tolerance to salt stress by regulating the expression of salt stress-related genes. The results explored the molecular modulation mechanism of TaSAP12-D in response to salt stress, and provided candidate gene for improving salt tolerance in crops.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    ZHOU Bingyue, YUAN Jianlong, ZHANG Yumei, LI Li, LIANG Lijuan, XIA Lulu, ZHANG Feng
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(2): 274-289.

    The fertility, adaptability and stability of potato are important indicators for potato popularization and application. Because of the differences in the performance of different characters by various environmental factors, it is necessary to screen and identify varieties (lines) in different ecological zones. In this study, the yield and plant traits of advance lines and main cultivars were analyzed by GGE (Genotype + genotypes and environment interactions) biplot, and the potato varieties (lines) with wide adaptability, high yield, stability and suitable for mechanization were selected. The effect of genotype-environment interactions on yield traits and plant traits were detailed, which provide a reference for potato breeding and selection of varieties in different ecological regions. Twenty two advance lines and thirteen main cultivars were selected to plant in three pilot sites in Weiyuan County, Anding District and Yongchang County of Gansu province from 2020 to 2021. Eight plant traits such as number of main stems and nine yield traits such as plot yield were measured. Analysis of variance was applied for analysis of significance. GGE biplot was used for analysis of adaptability, productivity and stability. Concurrently, the distinctiveness and representativeness of pilot sites were evaluated. Variance analysis showed that the effect of genotype on natural and absolute plant height were significant, and the sum of squares of genotype effect and the ratio to total variance was 66.63% and 56.56% respectively. The effect of genotype-environment interactions on peduncle length and yield of large tuber per plant were significant, and the sum of squares of interactions effect and the ratio to total variance was 27.86% and 27.05% respectively. The effect of environment on number of branches and yield of tuber per plant were significant, and the sum of squares of environment effect and the ratio to total variance was 55.82% and 25.52%. GGE analysis showed that yield and stability of varieties (lines) were generally consistent in different years. The genotypes with highest yield were G1, G33 and G10 in Weiyuan County, Anding District and Yongchang County. G32 was the most stable in the three pilot sites. Yongchang County had the strongest distinctiveness among varieties (lines) in 2020. Anding District had the strongest representativeness to target environment in 2021. GGE biplot can intuitively showed the results of varieties (lines) test in three sites between 2020 and 2021, and screen and evaluate varieties (lines) were G33, G12 and G3 were high yield, stable and suitable for mechanization, while G28, G26 and G23 were high yield, unstable and unsuitable for mechanization. The genotype-environment interactions had the greatest influence on peduncle length and yield of large tuber per plant. Combined with distinctiveness and representativeness, Weiyuan county was the best pilot sites in this experiment. According to the adaptability and stability of varieties (lines), the varieties (lines) suitable for planting in different ecological regions with high yield, stability and suitable for mechanization were selected, which will provide reference and theoretical basis for the subsequent registration and promotion of varieties.

  • Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology
    DENG Xiaohua, ZHU Lin, LI Sijun, WU Wenxin, JIANG Zhimin, ZHANG Cheng, WEN Yongcai, HU Qinghui
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(4): 854-864.

    In order to clarify the suitable maturity for one-time plucking of six middle flue-cured tobacco leaves of paddy-tobacco, Yunyan 87 was used as material, and three treatments of low maturity (M1), medium maturity (M2) and high maturity (M3) were designed to carry out the harvesting and curing experiments of different maturity of middle tobacco leaves in Guiyang tobacco area of Hunan, and the fuzzy evaluation method was used to comprehensively evaluate the test results. The results showed that the SPAD value of fresh tobacco and proportion of greenish tobacco leaves decreased, and the proportion of variegated tobacco increased; tobacco maturity was improved, and leaf structure was loosened; the single leaf weight of tobacco decreased; the contents of total sugar, reducing sugar and starch decreased, the contents of nicotine, potassium and chlorogenic acid increased, and the availability of chemical components increased; tobacco yield and output value decreased, as the harvest maturity of middle tobacco leaves increased. Compared with M1 and M3, the index of appearance quality of M2 treatment was 12.12% and 0.73% higher; the availability index of chemical components was 11.74% and -0.70% higher; total score of smoking quality was 0.53% and 5.42% higher; the economic properties index was 2.62% and 12.54% higher; index of tobacco quality was 3.46% and 3.16% higher; and the comprehensive economic effect index was 2.78% and 7.57% higher. The suitable harvest maturity of Yunyan 87 at one-time plucking of six middle flue-cured tobacco leaves in Guiyang tobacco area of Hunan requires 20%~70% yellowing of blade face, 1/3 white to full white of tobacco midrib and 1/4 white to full white of branch vein. When the SPAD value of fresh tobacco was 22.43~29.69, it provided a reference for guiding the appropriate harvest maturity of middle tobacco leaves of paddy-tobacco of Yunyan 87.The middle tobacco leaves of paddy- tobacco can be harvested at one time to improve quality and benefit.

  • Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology
    LU Zhaoyang, WANG Hongyu, XUE Tingting, LIU Wenxiang, CHEN Xiaoguang, YU Hanqing
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(9): 1833-1842.

    To evaluate the effectiveness of soil restoration measures in erosion-degraded forestlands in red soil region of South China, a typical erosion-degraded Pinus massoniana forestland was selected, which located in Ningdu County, Jiangxi province. Seven treatments were set up in this trial: no restoration measures (CT), fish scale pit + tree-grass (FG), fish scale pit + tree-shrubs (FS), fish scale pit + tree-shrubs-grass (FGS), small horizontal ditch + tree-grass (FGP), small horizontal ditch + tree-shrubs (FSP), small horizontal ditch + tree-shrubs-grass (FGSP). The response of soil erosion and nutrient loss to different restoration measures in the erosion-degraded forestlands was evaluated using the 7Be tracing technique. Results showed that the 7Be inventory residual percentage under different restoration measures was -6.84% to -33.13%. Soil erosion rate under different restoration measures ranged from 4.43 to 24.04 t·hm-2·event-1. The sediment reduction rate was 21.19%-85.49% compared with the CT, and the maximum were 85.49% and 83.81% under FGSP and FGS respectively. Compared with CT, the percentages of increment of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN) in each restoration measures were 25.10%-65.71%, 9.79%-46.85%, -30.68%-1.29%, respectively. Under two engineering measures, integrated vegetation measures (i.e. FGSP and FGS) of tree-shrubs-grass significantly reduced soil carbon and nitrogen loss, but there was no significant difference between the two engineering measures. The Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis suggested that 7Be was significantly and positively correlated with SOC, TN and AN content (P<0.01). RBe and VC explained 94.7% of variation of SOC loss; RBe, TN and VC explained 98.3% of variation of TN loss; and RBe explained 85.6% of variation of AN loss, which indicated that that SOC, TN and AN were physically transported with 7Be during soil erosion process, and soil carbon and nitrogen nutrient loss was influenced by coupling interactions of vegetation-soil-soil and water processes. 7Be allowed effective evaluation of short-term soil erosion and nutrient loss by different restoration measures. After 4 years of implementing restoration measures, the effect of integrated vegetation measures with tree-shrubs-grass on reducing soil erosion, carbon and nitrogen loss was more significant than that of soil conservation engineering measures. The results of this study provided scientific basis for assessment of ecological benefits and restoration management of erosion-degraded forestlands.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    WU Mengjie, HONG Jiadu, LI Fangyan, ZHOU Shengcai, LIN Erpei, CHENG Longjun
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(8): 1516-1522.

    Phoebe bournei (Hemsl.) Yang is an important and precious tree species in China. This study aimed to establish a genetic transformation system for P. bournei, pCAMBIA1300-GFP plasmid was constructed and transformed into seedlings with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. To optimize the transformation process, injection and soaking in bacterial solution were compared. Subsequently, an orthogonal [L9(33)] experiment was employed to determine the optimal combination A. rhizogenes strain type, bacterial solution concentration, and seedling age. In addition, the effects of light intensity on induction and transformational rate of P. bournei hairy roots were also examined. The results showed that hairy roots induction and transformation rate with injection method were 80.0% and 66.7% respectively, whereas only 41.2% and 35.3%with soaking method. The main factors affecting the hairy root induction rate and genetic transformation of P. bournei were strain species. Notably, strain type exhibited a substantial influence on both induction and transformation efficiency of hairy roots. The maximum induction and transformation rates were 87.5% and 70.6% respectively. The optimal strain was K599 with concentration of OD600=1.2, and the seedlings at the three-leaf stage was the best The seedlings growth, hairy roots induction and transformation efficiency of P. bournei seedlings under lower light intensity (50 μmol·m-2·s-1) were more favorable for seedling growth and transformation than high light intensity (100 μmol·m-2·s-1). This study established an efficient and steady transgenic system for P. bournei mediated by A. rhizogenes, thereby obtained transgenic hairy roots plants. That provided a useful platform for molecular genetic research of P. bournei and laying the foundation for important gene exploration, new germplasm development and genetic improvement of P. bournei.

  • Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology
    YANG Wenwei, SHI Yafei, GAO Lian, ZHANG Juanwei, CHEN Li, SUN Jianchang, LUO Chengke
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(1): 148-158.

    In order to explore effects of sowing depth and amount on seedling growth and yield of direct-seeding rice in Ningxia, the main rice variety Fuyuan No.4 was used as the test material. The two-factor split-plot design was adopted, with four sowing depths of 1, 2, 3 and 4 cm and four sowing rates of 112.5, 187.5, 262.5 and 337.5 kg·hm-2, to study the effects of different sowing depths and sowing rates on the seedling quality and yield of direct-seeding rice. The results showed that there was a significant interaction effect between sowing depth and sowing rate on the emergence rate of rice, among which the emergence rate of four combinations with sowing depth of 1~2 cm and sowing amount of 112.5~187.5 kg·hm-2 increased significantly compared with other combinations. In seedling quality, the four indexes of seedling height, stem base width, plumpness and strong seedling index were superior to other combinations coupled with sowing depth of 2 cm and sowing amount of 262.5 kg·hm-2. The rooting ability of two combinations of sowing depth of 2~3 cm and sowing amount of 187.5 kg·hm-2 was superior to other combinations, and the uniformity of seedlings was better than others with sowing depth of 3 cm and sowing amount of 262.5 kg·hm-2. Among the indexes of seedling quality, the effects of sowing depth multipled sowing amount on plumpness and strong seedling index have extremely significant interaction effects. As for root physiological indexes, the root vigor, total absorption area and active absorption area of root system in three combinations with sowing depth of 2 cm, sowing amount of 187.5~262.5 kg·hm-2, and sowing depth of 3 cm and sowing amount of 187.5 kg·hm-2 were better than other combinations, and there was a significant interaction effect between sowing depth and sowing amount on the above three indexes. Further, the membership function combined with weight analysis method was used to comprehensively evaluate (D value) 12 seedling quality related indexes under different sowing depth and sowing rate combinations, while four better combinations with sowing depth of 2~3 cm and sowing amount of 187.5~262.5 kg·hm-2 were selected. The results of yield analysis showed that the two combinations with sowing depth of 3 cm and the sowing amount of 187.5~262.5 kg·hm-2 increased the yield obviously, and the yield increase rate reached 4.29%~17.10%. To sum up, the suitable combination of sowing depth and sowing rate (sowing depth of 3 cm, sowing amount of 187.5~262.5 kg·hm-2) can promote the growth of direct-seeding rice seedlings by improving rooting ability, seedling uniformity and root absorption area, and improve the population quality of direct-seeding rice, thus increasing the yield of direct-seeding rice. The results of this study laid a theoretical foundation for the construction of direct seeding cultivation techniques of rice covered with soil in Ningxia.

  • Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology
    HAO Jinlian, WANG Ruyue, LUO Shasha, CHEN Hong, HU Haifang
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(3): 649-659.

    This paper aimed to clarify the changes of fruit quality and green nut cracking rate of six walnut varieties in Yecheng County, J.regia Wen185, J.regia Xinxin2, J.regia Xinfeng, J.regia Zha343, J.regia Xinguang and J.regia Wen179 at different harvesting times, and determine the suitable harvest times of 6 kinds of walnut in Yecheng County. In this experiment, the appearance quality of 6 walnut samples (three diameters, single nut weight, shell thickness, kernel yield, rate of re-nurture kernel, moisture content) and internal qualities (fat, protein, soluble sugar, vitamin E and mineral element content) of six walnut samples were determined. The results showed with the delay of harvesting time, the three diameters of nuts, single fruit weights, kernel yields and rates of re-nurture kernel of the six walnuts varieties showed an increasing trend, the shell thicknesses and water contents showed a decreasing trend, while the intrinsic qualities showed an overall increasing trend. J.regia Wen185 harvested on September 4 with J.regia Xinxin2 on September 24, J.regia Xinfeng on September 14, J.regia Zha343 on September 14, J.regia Xinguang and J.regia Wen179 on September 19, which have basically set the qualities of walnut nuts, fats and protein contents, etc. Too early and too late harvesting will have impact on nuts’ commercial value. Correlation analysis showed that the greater the green nut dehiscence rate, the larger the fruit and the higher the content of intrinsic nutrients. The green fruit dehiscence rate can be used as an important basis for judging that six kinds of walnuts in Yecheng County have entered the suitable harvesting period. According to comeprehensive assessment, the green nut rate of J.regia Wen185, J.regia Xinxin2, J.regia Xinfeng, J.regia Xinguang and J.regia Wen179 reached 75%, while green nut rate of J.regia Zha343 reached 55%. The results of this study provided a theoretical basis for further processing, storage and classification of 6 kinds of walnut after harvesting in Yecheng County.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    ZHOU Danrong, YE Xinfu, FANG Zhizhen, LIN Yanjuan, CHEN Wenguang
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(12): 2317-2326.

    In order to alleviate the effects of insufficient chilling on abnormal flower bud differentiation in plum which was common in the main plum producing areas in southern China, breeding new varieties of plum with high quality was an urgent need. Sanyueli (Prunus salicina L.), which had the characteristics of early-maturing and low-chilling-requirement, was selected as the material. The annual branches of Sanyueli were chosen for Cobalt 60-ray (60Co-γ) irradiation (50 Gy), and then single-bud was grafted on the branch of 3-year-old peach (Prunus persica L.). Among the grafted seedlings, a mutant with obvious variation in color and maturity stage was obtained. It was finally named Fuhong. To evaluate the quality and advantages of Fuhong and breed new varieties, the differences between Fuhong and Sanyueli in morphological characteristics, biological characteristics, quality characteristics, disease resistance, and yield were compared through phenotypic observation, quality analysis and molecular identification. The results showed that Fuhong retained the characteristic of low-chilling-requirement of Sanyueli. Furthermore, its color of peel and flesh were mutated into purple red, and the maturity period was delayed about 40 d. The weight of single fruit of Fuhong increased by 2.67 times, which was significantly higher than that of Sanyueli (P < 0.01); and the content of soluble solid, the ratio of sugar to acid were also significantly higher than those of Sanyueli (P < 0.01). The regional test in three ecological areas of Fujian showed that Fuhong had excellent and stable yield performance, higher than that of Sanyueli. This new plum variety Fuhong had the advantages of low-chilling-requirement, red flesh, large fruit weight, high sweetness and better quality. It would be preferable in market promotion.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    FENG Yuan, LIU Yefang, KOU Xiaohong, XUE Zhaohui
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(2): 217-229.

    NAC transcription factors are involved in plant growth and development, fruit pigment accumulation, cell wall morphogenesis, and plant senescence. To systematically study the precise function of SNAC4SlNAC48, Gene ID: 101247735) and SNAC9SlNAC19, Gene ID: 101248665) in the tomato ripening and aging, we designed SNAC4/9 knockout targets and constructed a single guide RNA (sgRNA) expression cassette through Overlapping Polymerase Chain Reaction (Overlapping PCR) method. Single or multiple sgRNA expression cassettes were assembled into pYLCRISPR/Cas9 vector by the Golden Gate cloning method. PCR and sequencing results showed that the SNAC4/9 knockout vector was successfully constructed. The genes encoding Cas9 protein and sgRNA were introduced into Micro-Tom tomato cells by the Agrobacterium transformation method, and the target and off-target of positive seedlings were detected. The results showed that tomatoes were mutated successfully without off-target. The identification of T1 mutants further demonstrated that CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing targets in tomato could be inherited stably between generations. Compared with wild type, SNAC4/9 knockout fruits had less pigment accumulation and delayed ripening, suggesting that SNAC4/9 played an essential role in tomato fruit ripening. This study provided genetic material and an experimental basis for further exploring the mechanism of SNAC4/9 regulating pigment metabolism and cell wall metabolism in tomatoes.

  • LU Maoang, PENG Xiaoai, LI Min, SONG Youhong, HE Xianfang, ZHU Yulei
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(2): 290-297.

    In order to screen suitable identification indexes of wheat grain uniformity, and establish an evaluation model of wheat grain uniformity, 150 wheat materials were planted in two locations, the grain morphological indexes such as grain length (X1), grain width (X2), diameter (X3), roundness (X4), grain length width ratio (X5), grain perimeter (X6), grain surface area (X7) and thousand grain weight (X8) were tested. In the present study, the diversity statistics, correlation analysis, cluster analysis, principal component analysis and membership function method were used to comprehensively assess the wheat grain uniformity. The results showed that the variation of each index under two locations ranged from 3.56% to 9.88%, the wheat accessions were clustered into four groups. Two independent comprehensive components were obtained from eight single indexes by a principal component analysis, and their contribution rates were 61.330% and 36.448% respectively, which reflected 97.778% of all indexes information. The comprehensive evaluation values (D) of grain uniformity were calculated from the membership function methods. In this way, the 150 accessions were classified into 4 uniformity types, including 12 ultra-high uniformity materials, 80 high uniformity materials, 56 medium uniformity materials and 2 low uniformity materials. A mathematical evaluation model of wheat seed uniformity was developed by stepwise regression equation: VP=-2.787+0.294 X2+0.007 X8 +0.246 X3+0.869 X4-0.178 X5+0.026 X6+0.019 X7R2=0.999). The optimum regression equation established to predict the uniformity of the accessions showed a highly significant positive correlation (P<0.01) between the predicted value (VP) and the D value. This study shows that grain length can be ignored in screening for high uniformity materials, with emphasis on grain width, diameter, roundness, grain perimeter, grain area and thousand grain weight. This study not only clarifies the influencing factors on wheat seed uniformity, but also provides a new evaluation method of wheat seed uniformity. This study provides a theoretical support for subsequent breeders to select materials with high uniformity.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    WANG Chi, HUANG Wei, GONG Ling, HE Cong, DENG Gangqiao, DENG Ziniu, LONG Guiyou, LI Na
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(11): 2117-2125.

    In order to investigate the genetical variations in early coloring trait of irradiation-induced mutant Bingtang sweet orange, the early coloring of the fruits and the changes in the intrinsic quality of sugar and acid, and validate whether it was an early-maturing mutant. The mutant and the control Bingtang sweet orange were used as materials, the changes in traits and characteristics such as spring tip length, spring tip leaves, floral organs, fruit size, peel color change, and the main seasonal period were analyzed. Molecular markers were applied to identify the genetic variations, and the changes in the soluble solids, titratable acid, and solid-acid ratio, as well as the expression of the genes related to sucrose and citric acid metabolism in the fruits of the mutant and control Bingtang sweet orange were investigated. The results showed that the mutant had significantly shorter spring tips, larger fruits at maturity, peel and flesh coloring orange-yellow and orange 15 d earlier, and the main seasonal period was 2-5 d earlier than that of the control Bingtang sweet orange. Differential bands were found in the amplification in mutant with both insertion and deletion (InDel) markers and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, showing genetically alteration. The external color and internal quality of the early maturing mutant fruit reached normal ripeness at 190 d after flowering, with soluble solids, titratable acidity, and sugar-to-acid ratio of 14.53° Brix, 0.46% and 31.59, respectively. The mutant exhibited low acidity, early acid reduction, high sugar-to-acid ratio, and matured 15 days earlier than the control. Expression analysis of genes related to sucrose and citric acid synthesis, degradation, and transport revealed that the synthesis of sucrose in the early maturing mutant was higher and the transport was early, while the synthesis of citric acid was lower, and the degradation was faster and storage was less. These characteristics were aligned with the fruit quality. In conclusion, the irradiation-induced mutant underwent changes in plant traits, biological characteristics, and DNA. The mutant exhibited early acid reduction, low acidity, high sugar-to-acid ratio, and reached color maturity in early November. This study laid the foundation for further selection and registration of this mutant as new early maturing Bingtang sweet variety.

  • Food Irradiation·Food Science
    ZHANG Fang, SONG Shijun, DONG Ruijuan, CHEN Xiaoe, FANG Xubo, LIU Suting, BAO Jiali, WU Mengyuan
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(1): 118-127.

    3-Monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) is a new pollutant in oil production and processing, and its pollution problem is worthy of attention in oil processing industry. In order to control the accumulation of 3-MCPDE in the process of fish oil refining and processing, activated white clay and by-products of shuttle crab shell were fired at 1∶5 (w∶w) to obtain the biochar-clay adsorbent (CBW) for adsorption of 3-MCPDE. The physical and chemical properties of the composite materials were analyzed by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area (BET), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The effects of solid-liquid ratio, adsorption temperature and adsorption time on 3-MCPDE in fish oil were studied, and its adsorption mechanism was discussed by adsorption kinetics. The results showed that the adsorption performance of CBW was significantly improved compared with a single adsorbent. The specific surface area and average pore size of CBW were increased, and new functional groups were loaded. When the optimal adsorption temperature was 80 ℃, the ratio of solid to liquid was 1∶25(w∶w), and the adsorption time was 50 min, the adsorption effect of 3-MCPDE in fish oil was the best, and the adsorption rate reached to 55.32±1.3%, and CBW has better regeneration adsorption performance. As regards the adsorption behaviour of 3-MCPDE in fish oil, the CBW better corresponded to the quasi-level 2 kinetic model and the Freundlich isothermal adsorption model, which indicate the presence of physical and chemical adsorption. This study provided a new adsorption material for 3-MCPDE in the fish oil, and provided support for the risk prevention and control of 3-MCPDE in fish oil production and the quality improvement of fish oil products.

  • Food Irradiation·Food Science
    SU Kenan, LIU Lili, YANG Le, WANG Mengyu
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(10): 2028-2033.

    In order to improve the functional properties of porcine hemoglobin (Hb) and enhance product value, this study employed an enzymatic-phosphorylation (HP) method for the modification of porcine hemoglobin. To investigate the effects of the synergistic modification on porcine hemoglobin, porcine hemoglobin and enzyme-digested porcine hemoglobin peptides (H-Hb) were used as control groups, and the functional properties and structure of the enzymatic-phosphorylated porcine hemoglobin (HP-Hb) were studied. The analysis of functional properties showed that compared to the control groups, the solubility of HP-Hb was significantly improved with an increased emulsion activity index of 12.42 and 6.30 m2·g-1P<0.05), as well as increased emulsion stability of 6.37% and 3.04% (P<0.05). The foamability of HP-Hb increased by 7.59% and 4.42% compared to the control groups (P<0.05), and the foam stability increased by 3.93% and 4.42% (P<0.05). Structural analysis showed that enzymatic digestion caused peptide chain breakage in HP-Hb, exposing more amino acid groups. Most of the phosphate groups were linked to the N atoms, and the increased presence of P-N and PO43- resulted in stronger infrared absorption peaks. Furthermore, the thermal stability of HP-Hb was significantly improved by 14.00 and 20.67 ℃ compared to H-Hb and Hb, respectively. Microstructural analysis revealed that dual modification caused a change in protein structure, transforming the molecular structure from compact block-like structure to loosely arranged blocks with smaller particle dispersion. Overall, the results indicated that HP dual modification was a feasible modification method to enhance the functional properties and stability of porcine hemoglobin. This study provides new insights for the modification of porcine hemoglobin and serves as a theoretical basis and reference for further research on the application of porcine hemoglobin in food processing.