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Biochar Concept Connotation and Phrases Discrimination
SHENG Kuichuan, YANG Shengmao
2022, 36 (2): 481-487. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0481
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The Chinese expression of the terminology “biochar” has created arguments in academic world for many years. This paper looks insight into the concept of biochar and analyzes the confusion nomenclature phenomena, based on the basic method of logistics on concept, phrases, definition and classification. By clarifying the logic problems on the definition and classification of biochar, this work established good practice for the in-depth understanding of biochar terminology, and promoting the spread of the related scientific knowledge and the application of the technological achievements.

Evaluation of the Introduction Performance of Ten Table Grape Cultivars in Weinan Area of Shaanxi Province
LI Yashan, LI Yumeng, REN Yizhao, LIU Xu, WANG Lujun, WANG Jinfeng, CUI Ping, WANG Yanjun
2021, 35 (12): 2756-2765. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.12.2756
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In order to screen superior table grape cultivars that are suitable for cultivation in Weinan area of Shaanxi Province and optimize the planting structure of table grape cultivars, ten table grape cultivars including Xinyu, Flame Seedless, Zicui Seedless, Zaoheibao, Summer Black, Zitian Seedless, Hutai No.8, Jumeigui, Shine Muscat, Gold Finger were introduced for cultivation. Field observation and laboratory detection were used in the introduction experiment. The phenological phase and botany properties of the experimental cultivars were observed and recorded, physical and chemical compositions of berries were measured and sensory quality of berries was evaluated. Finally, the berry quality was evaluated comprehensively and ranked with the method of principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that there were differences among the cultivars in the phenological phase, the botany properties, the physical and chemical compositions and the sensory scores under the conditions of simple rain shelter in Weinan area. The PCA analysis indicated that Xinyu and Hutai No.8 showed better quality, and the quality of Zaoheibao, Shine Muscat, Zitian Seedless were general, but the other cultivars were poor. Xinyu and Hutai No.8 were suggested to be the prior, and the cultivars of Zaoheibao, Shine Muscat and Zitian Seedless could be scaled up moderately. However, the other cultivars were not recommended to plant in large-scale in this area or the cultivation management for planting them had been improved. The results could provide some references for introduction of superior cultivars and planting structure optimization of table grape cultivars in Weinan area.

Effects of Combined Application of Sheep Manure-Derived Organic Fertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer on Tobacco Growth and Soil Fertility
MA Yilin, WU Guanghai, SHEN Hongtao, WANG Xinzhong, ZHAO Shimin, MA Junhong, WANG Lihua, LIU Ling
2021, 35 (10): 2423-2430. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.10.2423
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In order to investigate the influences of combined application of sheep manure-derived organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) growth and soil fertility, we used flue-cured tobacco variety Zhongyan101 as test materials and conducted a pot experiment to study the effects of different application ratios of sheep manure and chemical fertilizer(T0: 100% inorganic fertilizer N; T20: 20% sheep manure N+80% inorganic fertilizer N; T40: 40% sheep manure N+60% inorganic fertilizer N; T60: 60% sheep manure N+40% inorganic fertilizer N; T80: 80% sheep manure N+20% inorganic fertilizer N; T100: 100% sheep manure N) on tobacco agronomic characters, root morphological parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, soil nutrients and soil enzyme activities under equal amount of fertilizer application, and non-fertilizer application was set as a control (CK). The results showed that T0 and T20 treatments had higher soil available nutrients and could promote tobacco growth at 30 days after transplanting, but the contents of soil available nutrient and the growth potential of tobacco decreased significantly at 60 days after transplanting, and the content of soil organic matter and the activity of soil sucrase were also lower than that of other treatments at 60 days after transplanting. T80 and T100 treatments had higher soil organic matter content, but the activities of soil protease and urease, the contents of soil available nutrients and the growth of tobacco were lower than that of other treatments at 30 days after transplanting. T40 and T60 treatments had slightly lower soil available nutrients than that of T0 treatment at 30 days after transplanting, but the activities of soil sucrase, protease and urease, as well as the contents of soil available nutrient significantly increased at 60 days after transplanting, and could ensure tobacco growth at both 30 days and 60 days after transplanting. Compared with T0 treatment, T40 and T60 treatments increased the maximum leaf area by 11.9% and 10.7%, the shoot dry weight by 11.9% and 9.6%, the root dry weight by 12.1% and 26.8%, and the net photosynthetic rate by 17.6% and 16.2%, respectively, at 60 days of after transplanting. In general, the 40% and 60% sheep manure N application was more conductive to the growth of tobacco and the maintenance of soil fertility. This study provided a theoretical basis for the scientific application of sheep manure-derived organic fertilizer in tobacco-growing area of Luoyang.

Analysis of Small RNA Sequencing Variation in Rice Irradiated by 60Co-γ Ray
ZHANG Li, ZHANG Yong, LEI Xingyu, ZHANG Yuanhai, ZHANG Yiyan, PENG Xuanming, YANG Zhen
2021, 35 (11): 2441-2450. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.11.2441
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In order to research the small RNA variation of damage effect in rice caused by the γ-ray irradiation, radiation doses of 0, 300 and 400 Gy were applied to the rice seeds of Gaogengnuo, a small transcriptome was sequenced by using Ilumina HiSeqTM 2500 with three leaf stage seedling of irradiated GaoGengNuo. Result showed that total of 7 395 578 small RNAs, including 254 known miRNAs and 26 novel miRNAs were identified in 0 (CK) group; 10 315 701 small RNAs, 265 known miRNAs and containing 269 novel miRNAs were identified in the 300 Gy (Gy3) group; 6 469 869 small RNAs, containing 261 known miRNAs and 29 novel miRNAs were indentified in 400 Gy (Gy4) group. By Go analysis, the corresponding genes of differentially expressed miRNAs in Gy4 vs CK group were classified into 58 terms of three main GO categories, with the largest proportion of regions performing molecular processes; the differentially expressed miRNAs in Gy3 vs Gy4 group were classified into 7 terms of “biological process” and “molecular function” two main GO categories, among which ion binding, transition metal ion binding and oxidoreductase activity were the three most GO terms. Through analyzing the most significant enrichment 20 pathways with REGG pathway analysis, the corresponding genes of differentially expressed miRNAs in Gy3 vs CK group were majorly involved in plant pathogen interaction pathway, and the most significant pathway was plant circadian rhythm pathways; In Gy4 vs CK group, the highest number of genes were enriched in metabolic pathway, and the most significant pathway were glycerol phospholipids metabolism and ether lipid metabolism; In Gy3 vs Gy4 group, the highest number of genes were enriched in glycerol phospholipid metabolism, ribosome biogenesis in eukaryotes and endocytosis, and the most significant enrichment was ether lipid metabolism. By analyzing the variations of RNA level, it provides a new pathway to study the damage effect of rice seedling by irradiation.

Role of Sucrose Metabolism and Signal Transduction in Plant Development and Stress Response
FENG Yalan, YIN Fei, XU Ke, JIA Xiaoyi, ZHOU Shuang, MA Chao
2021, 35 (9): 2044-2055. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.09.2044
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Sucrose metabolism plays a critical role in plant development, stress response and yield formation. The growth and development process of the plant is promoted through the synthesis and decomposition of a series of sugars. As a signal factor, it participates in regulating the expression of related genes, and can interact with other genes, hormones, and defense signals. However, the coupling mechanism of sucrose metabolism and signal transmission between intracellular and external is different from the signal transduction mechanism of sucrose metabolizing enzymes. This article reviews the function of crucial sucrose metabolism enzymes in plant development and response to abiotic stresses. Combining with the current researches, the future research direction of sugar metabolism and its signal transduction has being proposed, which will contribute to understanding and improving the characteristics of plant growth and development as well as stress resistance.

VIGS Silencing SlDCL2 and SlDCL4 Destroy Tomato Ty-1/ Ty-3 Resistance to Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV)
YUE Ningbo, LI Yulong, SUN Yifan, PAN Pengcheng, PAN Yintao, ZHENG Yin, LI Yunzhou, LIANG Yan
2021, 35 (11): 2493-2500. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.11.2493
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Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) seriously threatens the production of Solanaceae vegetable crops. Resistance markers Ty-1 and Ty-3 are a pair of allele genes, which are widely used in tomato breeding for TYLCV resistance. In order to explore the antiviral molecular mechanism of Ty-1/Ty-3, tomato ‘Y19’ with the Ty-1/Ty-3 resistance marker was used as the material, the key genes SlDCL2a/b/c/d (SlDCL2) and SlDCL4 involved in RNA interference (RNAi) were silenced by virus induced gene silencing (VIGS) technology, and their function in resistance of Ty-1/Ty-3 to TYLCV was study. The targeted fragments of SlDCL2 and SlDCL4 were amplified and sequenced, results showed that the silencing vector, pTRV2∶SlDCL2 and pTRV2∶SlDCL4 were constructed successfully. The silencing of tomato PDS (SlPDS) gene was used as a marker for successful silencing in plant, and the silencing efficiency of the SlDCL2 or SlDCL4 genes in the SlDCL2 or SlDCL4 silencing lines was detected by quantitative PCR (qPCR). The results showed that the expressions of corresponding gene in the SlDCL2 and SlDCL4 silencing lines were 50% less than that in the control plants, which indicated that SlDCL2 and SlDCL4 silencing vectors can indeed reduce the expression of corresponding genes. SlDCL2-silenced and SlDCL4-silenced plants were inoculated with TYLCV respectively. The results showed that the ‘Y9’ material had obvious symptoms of TYLCV, the disease severity of SlDCL2- and SlDCL4- silenced plants were 1.97±1.01, 2.35±0.75 respectively, significantly higher than that of the plants transformed with empty vector (0.14±0.24) and no vector (0.07±0.19). This result indicates that SlDCL2 and SlDCL4 play important roles in the resistance of Ty-1/Ty-3 to TYLCV, which laid a foundation for tomato breeding with resistance marker genes of Ty-1/3.

Cloning and Expression Analysis of Transcription Factor PpWRKY18 in Peach
LI Sen, WANG Qingjie, CHEN Xiude, ZHANG Rui, LI Ling, DU Guiying, FU Xiling
2021, 35 (9): 1987-1993. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.09.1987
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In order to explore the important role of WRKY transcription factors in plant resistance to adversity stress. This study obtained the PpWRKY18 gene in peach, and bioinformatics analysis showed that the PpWRKY18 protein contained a typical WRKY functional domain. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that PpWRKY18 in peach was more closely related those in to Rosaceae species. PpWRKY18 was predicted to be a nucleolus localization protein, and was confirmed to be located in nucleus using transient expression in tobacco leaf through Agrobacterium tumefaciens injection. Fusion protein PGEX-PpWRKY18 was expressed after induction, and showed that the PpWRKY18 was mainly expressed in the inclusion body. Real-time PCR showed that the expression of PpWRKY18 was induced by drought, and the expression of PpWRKY18 decreased after rehydration. The protein phosphatase protein family (Protein Phosphatase 2C), C2H2 protein family (PpZAT5), ERF protein family (PpERF9), and BHLH protein family (PpBHLH92) were predicted to interact with PpWRKY18, therefore we speculate that PpWRKY18 regulates drought stress by interacting with these proteins, and may provide a theoretical basis for investigating the molecular mechanism of PpWRKY18 response to drought.

Screening and Evaluation of Cucumber Salt-Tolerant Germplasm
CAO Qiwei, DU Lianda, YANG Zonghui, LI Libin, DUAN Xi, YANG Wenqiang, CHEN Wei, MENG Zhaojuan
2022, 36 (5): 865-875. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.05.0865
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In order to clarify the different tolerance of cucumber germplasm to NaCl, the salt-tolerant material MC2065 and salt-sensitive material White cucumber were used to verify the appropriate concentration of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mM NaCl. And nine physiological and biochemical indexes, including salt tolerance index, chlorophyll, and protective enzymes under NaCl treatment were used to evaluate the salt-tolerances of 21 germplasms. The results showed that 100 and 150 mM could be the appropriate concentration.The salt injury index of White cucumber was 35.94% in 100 mM NaCl, showing obvious damage to leaves, while that of MC2065 was 4.69% and showed no obvious damage. Under 150 mM, both showed obvious damage, more than half of leaves were withered for White cucumber, but less than half for MC2065. With cluster analysis, 21 germplasms were divided into 3 groups. The first group categorized as salt-tolerant germplasm, including ZQ3, N26-5-1, Shoushui 1, DRTJY-2, Laixi, Cuiyu, 20S077-1. The second group, including DJ04, DY-1, XY1, YY9123, M2XT, D1503, X805, was medium salt-tolerant germplasm. And the third group was salt-sensitive germplasm, which included F6-3-1, SJ11-1, XB23, 20S091-1, HLT-921h, AZ-1, DRT345. The trend of comprehensive scores of cucumber germplasm by the compoment analysis was basically consistent with that obtained by cluster analysis and seedlings survival rate. The study will provide references for investigating cucumber salt-tolerant mechanism and lay a foundation for the breeding of cucumber salt-tolerant varieties.

Traits Analysis of Offsprings Mutated by 60Co-γ Radiation in Iris hollandica
LIN Bing, FAN Ronghui, CHEN Yuhua, FANG Nengyan, YE Xiuxian, ZHONG Huaiqin, HUANG Minling
2021, 35 (10): 2205-2213. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.10.2205
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In order to explore distinguishing main characters of mutant obtained by 60Co-γ radiation in Iris hollandica Zhanchi, botanical agronomic traits of 4 stable mutants (5-7CBS, 7-10SLZ, 7-10QLS, 10ZLL) and their wild-type Zhanchi were evaluated, the similarities and differences of the main ornamental traits (flowers) were analyzed and compared according to test guidelines of Bulbous Irises. It was found that mutants and wild type were basically consistent in plant morphology, flowering period and growth period. Among the 40 traits investigated, there were significant differences in the characteristics of five pseudo-qualitative characteristics between mutants and wild type, such as groud color of upper side of blade in outer tepal, color of inner tepal, color of upper side in bridge, color of upper side in crest, and groud color of upper side of claw in outer tepal. Another 35 character were highly similar in corresponding phenotype and values. The results showed that flower color of Iris hollandica has great genetic improvement potetiality with radiation breeding. It is speculated that flower color variation may be an important indicator for distinguishing mutants from wild type. According to the expression state of flower color, variation of flower color can be divided into four types: strengthening type, wild type, weakening type and full variant type. This study can provide basic data and reference for breeding new varieties in Iris hollandica.

Geneome-Wide Identification and Expression Analysis of Auxin Response Factor Gene Family in Maize
CAO Liru, ZHANG Qianjin, GUO Zining, LU Xiaomin, ZHANG Xin, WEI Xin, HUANG-FU Baishu, WANG Zhenhua
2021, 35 (9): 2016-2026. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.09.2016
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Auxin response factor (ARF) can specifically bind to the promoter region of response gene to regulate plant growth and development. In order to understand furtherly the number, basic characteristics, evolutionary relationship of ARF gene family in maize and the expression pattern of ARF in response to abiotic stress and hormone. In this study, the ARF gene family in maize was identified by bioinformatics, and the physiochemical properties and the phylogeny of proteins were analyzed. RT-qPCR was used to analyze the temporal and spatial expression patterns and their expression under high temperature, drought, salt and ABA treatment of fourZmARFs. The results showed that 36 ARFs genes were randomly and unevenly distributed on 9 chromosomes, and the amino acid length, molecular weight, isoelectric point and secondary structure of the encoding protein were quite different. The protein phylogenetic tree of sorghum, rice, Arabidopsis and maize showed that these ARF proteins are divided into four categories Ⅰ~Ⅳ. Maize ARF has the closest genetic relationship with sorghum ARF, and the farthest genetic relationship with Arabidopsis ARF, and there were intragenic and intergenic duplication occurs in maize.The cis-acting elements of promoter are main elements in response to drought, low temperature, oxidation and hormones. RT-qPCR results showed that the expression of ZmARF1,ZmARF6,ZmARF13 and ZmARF22 were higher in the tassel branches and embryos, but lower in the pollen. The four genes were significantly up-regulated when induced by high temperature, drought, salt and ABA, except that ZmARF22 gene had decreased expression after high temperature treatment. Subcellular localization indicated that the proteins encoded byZmARF1, ZmARF6, ZmARF13 and ZmARF22 are localized in the nucleus. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for revealing the function of maize ARF protein and mining stress resistant genes, and also provide molecular resources for stress resistant breeding.

Effect of Compound Sodium Nitrophenolate on Seed Germination and Seedling Cold Tolerance of Cucumber Under Low Temperature
HUANG Bin, LI Wenke, SUN Mintao, YAN Yan, WANG Jun, HE Chaoxing, YU Xianchang, LI Yansu
2022, 36 (4): 845-855. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.04.0845
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In order to alleviate the damage of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings under low temperature, a cold-sensitive cucumber genotype (cv. Zhongnong 106) was used in this study to investigate the effects of compound sodium nitrophenolate (CSN) on seeds germination and seedling growth of cucumber under low temperature via soaking seeds or root application to the substrate of CSN. The results showed that soaking seeds with appropriate concentration of CSN significantly improved the germination rate, germination index, vigor index, number of lateral roots and fresh weight of cucumber during low temperature, and the optimal concentration of CSN was 50 mg·L-1. Moreover, during the growth of cucumber seedling, addition of 100 mg·L-1 CSN in substrate could significantly improve the quality and seedling index of seedlings exposed to low temperature, and enhance cold tolerance by increasing the mineral elements absorption, chlorophyll content, net photosynthetic rate, soluble protein content, proline content, root activity, the activities of antioxidant enzyme (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, and ascorbate peroxidase), the contents of IAA and BR but reducing the content of hydrogen peroxide and malondialdehyde. This study provides a new method for cultivating strong cucumber seedlings and improving the cold tolerance of cucumber seedlings, and offers technical support for the application of CSN in the cultivation of protected vegetables.

Effects of Oxalic Acid on Edible Quality of Bamboo Shoots ( Bambusa oldhami) Without Sheaths During Cold Storage and the Related Mechanism
DAI Dan, ZHENG Jian, ZHOU Chengmin, CHENG Jiyu, DING Lizhong
2021, 35 (10): 2294-2304. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.10.2294
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To evaluate the effects of oxalic acid treatment on the edible quality of bamboo (Bambusa oldhami ) shoots during postharvest, fresh bamboo shoots without sheaths were soaked in a 5 mmol·L-1 oxalic acid solution for 10 min and then stored at (6±1)℃ under 80%-85% relative humidity (RH) for 10 d. Quality parameters and activities of key enzymes and gene expression involved in lignification and browning of bamboo shoots were periodically determined during cold storage to investigate the related mechanism. The results indicated that oxalic acid treatment slowed down the increase rates of flesh firmness and contents of cellulose and lignin, delayed the wound browning, enhanced membrane integrity, reduced respiration,the production rate of superoxide anion ($O_2^{·-}$) and the content of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). It also decreased the activities of phenylalanine ammonialyase (PAL), peroxidase (POD), cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and the expression of their encoding genes during cold storage, enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase(SOD)and catalase(CAT)and up-regulated the expression of their encoding genes. It was suggested that these regulation effects of oxalic acid on enzymatic activities and the expression of encoding genes may collectively contribute to the reduction of lignification and browning and consequently benefit the edible quality of bamboo shoots during cold storage. This study provided a theoretical foundation for the application of oxalic acid treatment on bamboo shoots storage.

Polyploid Induction of Phalaenopsis Protocorms via Colchicine Treatment
WU Ting, ZHU Jun, YANG Jiahui, GE Hong, YANG Shuhua, ZHAO Xin, YU Xiaonan, JIA Ruidong
2021, 35 (11): 2463-2469. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.11.2463
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In order to explore the effect of colchicine on chromosome polyploidization of Phalaenopsis, protocorms of Phalaenopsis H-03 (2n=2x=38) were used as the materials to induce polyploid by colchicine with mixed culture in this study. Colchicine concentrations in the medium were 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and the duration of co-culture was 5, 10, and 15 d respectively. The results showed that the most efficient condition for inducing mutation was treated with 0.05% colchicine for 15 d, which resulted in about 30.00% surviving plants and 50.00% mutated plants. The results measured by flow cytometry and root-tip squash indicated that a large number of chimeras among mutants after treatment. Compared with the control plant, the mutants showed dwarfed, with dark green, rough surface, broad leaves, short or round leaves. Some mutant plants also had abnormal and twisted leaves. The observation of stomata showed that the shape of stomata were rounder,the number of stomata per unit area decreased and the size of stomata are larger in mutants than that in the control, and the length and width of the stomata of mutants were increased by 76.45% and 38.99%, respectively. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for breeding new varieties of Phalaenopsis.

Phenotypic Identification and Gene Mapping of Green Revertible White-Stripes Mutant wsl887 in Rice ( Oryza sativa L.)
YAN Xiaoqing, CHEN Nenggang, LI Huan, CHEN Feng, SONG Ze, YU Xianquan
2021, 35 (11): 2451-2462. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.11.2451
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Discovery of thermosensitive rice leaf-color mutant genes can enrich rice genetic resources and providing materials for studying the mechanism of the chloroplast development regulated by low-temperature. In the present study, a new green revertible white-stripe mutant, wsl887, was isolated from Qiao-gang Pearl Rice, a local rice germplasm in Guizhou, by 60Co irradiation. Results showed that wsl887 displayed a white-stripe phenotype at seedling stage in the field. However, the main agronomic traits at maturation stage, didn't show significant differences from that of the wild type. When grown at 20℃ and 25℃, wsl887 displayed albino and white-stripe leaves, respectively, with significantly decreased photosynthetic pigment when compared with the wild type. Interestingly, when grown at 30℃, leaf color and photosynthetic pigment content of ws1887 showed no significant difference with those of the wild type. Transmission electron microscopy observation revealed that, wsl887 had no or deformed chloroplasts in mesophyll cells of the albino leaves at 20℃, but had the same number and normal morphology of chloroplasts at 30℃. The qRT-PCR results indicated that genes related to photosynthetic pigment metabolic pathway, photosynthesis and mitochondrial electron transport were differentially expressed in wsl887 at different temperature (20℃ and 30℃), when compared with those in the wild type. Genetic analysis demonstrated that the phenotype of wsl887 was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. Finally, WSL887 was located between SSR markers RM262 and RM5427 on chromosome 2, with a physical distance of 743.6 kb. By analyzing the genes located in the candidate region, wsl887 is a new thermosensitive leaf color mutant, which has great application value in hybrid rice due to its mutation without compromising the yield of the plant and the main agronomic traits under natural conditions. Under different temperature conditions, the expression of the genes in cytoplasm was significantly reduced in wsl887. Taken together, we hypothesized that the WSL887 could be the key gene responsible for the development of chloroplast in cytoplasm. This study laid a solid foundation for further cloning the wsl887 mutant gene and studying the gene function.

Fine Mapping of Node Numbers on the Main Stem QTLs in Soybean Based on BAS and SLAF-Seq
YANG Yuhua, BAI Zhiyuan, WEI Baoguo, LEI Yang, ZHANG Ruijun
2021, 35 (9): 1953-1963. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.09.1953
Abstract216)   HTML14)    PDF (8011KB)(99)      

To provide technical supports for marker assisted breeding and accelerate the cloning and functional verification of candidate genes of node numbers on the main stem in soybean, high throughput sequencing was used to detect the association region (QTL), fine mapping of the QTL were then conducted with the InDel markers developed based on the re-sequencing of parents. In this study, 102 recombinant inbred lines (RIL) derived from the cross between C025 with few node numbers on the main stem and Zhong119 with many node numbers on the main stem were used as experimental materials. Two mixed pools were constructed from 30 inbred lines with extremely few or extremely many node numbers on the main stem respectively. Five quantitative trait locus (QTL) related to the node number on the main stem of soybean were detected on chromosome 4 by the Bulked segregant analysis (BSA) and specific-locus amplified fragment sequencing (SLAF-Seq) high throughput sequencing method. In order to further narrow down the association regions, insertion-deletion (InDel) information between the association regions were obtained according to the re-sequencing of parental lines and the InDel markers were developed. The genotype of F 2 population was firstly analyzed by the InDel markers, and the major locus was mapped in the third associated region. Then eight co-dominant InDel markers were developed in the major region and all RIL lines were genotyped, nine individuals were obtained and the major region was divided into six exchange types. Combined with phenotypic analysis, the node number on the main stem was mapped between InDel markers Chr04-38 and Chr04-46, a region with only 171.9 kb, including six candidate genes. Therefore, the major locus of the node number on the main stem of soybean main stem was fine mapped. In short, the combination of BSA and high-throughput sequencing can effectively and rapidly detect the association regions of the node number on the main stem of soybean, furtherly combined the re-sequencing of parents to develop the tightly linked InDel markers can realize fine mapping of the major region. The developed InDel Markers Chr04-38 and Chr04-46 are tightly linked with the node numbers on the main stem of soybean, which can be used in the molecular marker assisted breeding for node numbers on the main stem in soybean.

Research on Quality Evaluation Indices of Weak Gluten Wheat
LI Man, ZHANG Xiao, LIU Datong, JIANG Wei, GAO Derong, ZHANG Yong
2021, 35 (9): 1979-1986. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.09.1979
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The purpose of this paper was to confirm the core indices to evaluate the quality of weak gluten wheat, and optimize weak gluten wheat quality evaluation system. In this study, nine weak-gluten wheat cultivars from the region of middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River were used to carry out four-year planting experiments. Quality parameters, including grain protein content, kernel hardness, wet gluten content, gluten index, SDS sedimentation value and solvent retention capacity (SRC), farinograph parameters and alveograph parameters were investigated after harvesting. Cookies were processed in the laboratory and quality parameters such as diameter and thickness were tested. Results indicated that most quality traits of weak gluten wheat were affected by both genotype and environment, and gene effects were greater than environment effects for grain protein content, kernel hardness, SDS sedimentation value, water SRC, sodium carbonate SRC, lactic acid SRC, alveograph parameters, degree of softening, and cookie diameter and thickness. There was no significant difference in protein content, wet gluten content, water absorption, development time, stability time, farinograph quality number among the cultivars tested. Whereas hardness, gluten index, water SRC, sodium carbonate SRC, P value, P/L value and degree of softening showed significant differences among weak gluten wheat varieties(P<0.05), and were significant or extremely significant correlated with cookie quality, which indicated their potential applications as the quality evaluation indices for weak-gluten wheat. It can be concluded from this study that the recommended quality evaluation standards of weak-gluten wheat are: hardness≤25, gluten index≥80%, water SRC≤60%, sodium carbonate SRC≤75%, P value of alveograph≤40mm, L value of alveograph≥95mm, P/L ratio of alveograph≤0.45, 75≤degree of softening≤95.At the same time, results from the cluster analysis showed that Yangmai13, Yangmai9 and Yangmai19 are elite weak-gluten wheat cultivars. The results provided support for weak gluten wheat breeding.

Characterization and Gene Mapping of pyl3 Mutant in Rice
HU Binhua, WANG Ping, DU Anping, LI Hui, WANG Minxia, BAI Yulu, JI Zhandong, PU Zhigang
2021, 35 (12): 2696-2703. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.12.2696
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A pale yellow leaf 3(pyl3) mutant was isolated from the 60Co-γ radiation mutagenized population of indica rice restorer Chuanhui907 (R907). To clarify the regulation mechanism of the pale yellow leaf phenotype in pyl3 mutant, phenotype identification, major agronomic traits and gene mapping analysis were performed in this study. The results showed that pyl3 mutant exhibited a pale yellow leaf phenotype from the seedling stage to mature stage. Chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were significantly reduced in pyl3 leaves at seedling stage and most agronomic traits including plant height, panicle length, grain number per panicle and seed setting rate of pyl3 were significantly decreased at mature stage. Genetic analysis indicated that the phenotype of the pyl3 mutant was controlled by a single recessive nuclear gene. The candidate gene was preliminarily mapped to a 3.2 Mb region between InDel markers M4 and M6 on chromosome 3 by using molecular marker linkage analysis. Further Bulked-Segregant Analysis (BSA) based whole genome resequencing and sanger sequencing analysis showed that a point mutation (C1034T) in the CHLI gene, which encoded the Mg-protoporphyrin Ⅸ chelatase Ⅰ subunit, resulted a substitution of Tyr by Cys at the 345thposition of the encoding protein, suggesting that the CHLI pyl3gene in pyl3 mutant is a novel allele of the chl9/chli gene. Additionally, the qRT-PCR analysis showed that the expression levels of chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis related genes were altered in pyl3 mutant. This study provides a new genetic material and theoretical basis for further studying the molecular regulation mechanism in rice leaf color.

Research Progress in Preparation and Application of Cellulose Nanocrystals
ZHU Shunshun, MU Taihua, SUN Hongnan
2022, 36 (1): 174-182. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.01.0174
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Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) are rod-like nanomaterials extracted from natural plant fibers, with a length of several hundred nanometers and a width of 5~50 nm. Because it is natural green, biodegradable, biocompatible with high specific surface area and great reactivity, CNC has been widely investigated by researchers. In this review, the preparation and modification methods of CNC are summarized, and the characterization methods of CNC are also introduced. Furthermore, the applications of CNC materials in biomedicine, photoelectric energy, environmental protection, food and other fields are also summarized, and its future development trend is prospected. This review may provide theoretical references for the development and utilization of cellulose nanocrystals.

Physicochemical Properties of Starch in Rice White Core Mutant xb1
LYU Jun, JIANG Xiuying, LIU Jun, XIE Wenxiao, HAN Yong, SHEN Feng
2021, 35 (10): 2214-2222. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.10.2214
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Starch is the main component of rice endosperm. The analysis of its physical and chemical properties has great significance for the improvement of rice quality. To study the physicochemical properties of starch in white core rice, the white core mutant xb1 derived from the Japonica rice variety Liaoxing 1 by EMS induction was used as material. The morphological structure, starch granule structure and particle size distribution, gelatinization characteristics and thermodynamic properties of xb1, were analyzed by means of scanning electron microscope, laser particle diameter analyzer, RVA rapid viscosity analyzer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicated that compared to wild type, mutant xb1 displayed significantly lower grain width, grain thickness and 1000-grain weight, and the starch structure and the distribution of starch grain size were changed, and the number of starch granule diameter greater than 13 μm was significantly decreased. Also the protein content in seeds of mutant xb1 was significantly higher than that of wild type, the total starch content was significantly lower than that of wild type, whereas the amylose content showed no significant difference. For amylopectin chains length distribution, the ratio of short chains (DP 6~9) and the ratio of medium and long chains (DP 25~35) in xb1 increased, while the ratio of medium and short chains (DP 10~24) and long chains (DP 36~50) decreased. The starch gelatinization onset temperature (To), peak temperature (Tp), conclusion temperature (Tc) and gelatinization range (Tr) of mutant xb1 were not significantly changed, whereas the thermal enthalpy (△H) was significantly increased. Meanwhile, among the RVA profile parameters of mutant xb1, hot paste viscosity (HPV), peak past viscosity (CPV), cool past viscosity (CPV) and setback viscosity (SBV) were significantly increased, while breakdown viscosity (BDV) and consistency viscosity (CSV) were significantly decreased. The results of this study will lay a foundation for research on the physiological mechanism of chalkiness formation and further gene cloning.

Research Progress on Promoting Growth and Drought Resistance of Wheat by Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria
WEN Hongwei, YANG Bin, WANG Dongsheng
2021, 35 (9): 2194-2203. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.09.2194
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Drought stress is the most important abiotic stress factor affecting the growth and development and yield formation of wheat. With the adverse effects of excessive use of chemical fertilizer and global climate change, the harm of drought stress in the growth of wheat is becoming more and more serious. Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can not only help wheat improve its nutrient utilization efficiency and promote its growth, but also help wheat to resist drought stress through its own action or various metabolites. In this paper, the mechanism of PGPR promoting growth was summarized, and the research progress of PGPR in improving wheat drought resistance was summarized from two aspects of physiological and molecular mechanism, which laid a theoretical foundation for the application research of using PGPR to improve wheat growth promotion and drought resistance.

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