WRKY transcription factors are a distinct class of regulatory proteins found exclusively in plants， and they play an important role in combating various biotic and abiotic stresses. In this study， based on the isolation of BoiWRKY8 gene from broccoli， bioinformatic methods for sequence analysis were utilized， and qRT-PCR was applied to confirm the expression pattern of this gene under the infection of Sclerotiniasclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. Furthermore， overexpressed plants were subjected to disease resistance identification， aiming to preliminarily elucidate the function of BoiWRKY8 in disease responses. The results indicated that the genomic sequence of BoiWRKY8 was 3 170 bp in length， containing two introns of 776 bp and 1 422 bp. The complete coding sequence was 972 bp， encoding 323 amino acids. The WRKY domain of BoiWRKY8 was composed of 60 amino acid residues， including a WRKYGQK sequence followed by a C2H2 zinc finger structure of C-X4-C-X23-H-X1-H. Phylogenetic analysis results revealed that BoiWRKY8 clustered together with its homologous sequences from Brassica genus with a support value of 100%， and exhibited the closest relationship with wild cabbage. qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of BoiWRKY8 was significantly induced by the necrotrophic fungal pathogens S.sclerotiorum and B. cinerea， and the highest transcript levels were observed at 6 h and 12 h after inoculation， with fold changes of 3.18/2.68 and 3.22/2.90， respectively. BoiWRKY8 overexpressing broccoli plants exhibited increased resistance to both S.sclerotiorum and B. cinerea， concomitant with elevated expression of BoPDF1.2， one marker gene of the JA/ET pathway. Isolation and expression analysis of BoiWRKY8 gene provides a foundational framework for further investigation into the underlying mechanisms of broccoli’s resistance to diseases and molecular breeding.
BRI1-EMS-Suppressor 1 （BES1）， a crucial transcription factor involved in oleuropein lactone signaling， has been demonstrated to play a significant involvement in the regulation of plant photomorphogenesis and bud development. In order to investigate whether VvBES1 regulates flower bud differentiation through responding to red and blue light in Red Globe grapes， as well as the expression pattern of VvBES1 under this mode of regulation. In this study， red globe grape buds were utilized as test materials， while a 4∶1 ratio of red and blue light （R4B1） was used as the light treatment and greenhouse natural light served as the control （CK）. Through screening from transcriptome data generated before， VvBES1-1 （Vitvi10g00636） was selected， and its coding sequence （CDS） was obtained via homologous cloning with a total length of 1 026 bp， encoding 341 amino acids. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that VvBES1-1 protein contained one highly conserved BES1-N binding structural domain of the BES1 family， belonging to the same subfamily as riverbank grapes. The expression pattern of VvBES1-1 showed tissue-specificity and continuous expression throughout all periods； However， its expression during R4B1 treatment period was significantly lower than that under natural light conditions. On September 15th， VvBES1-1 reached its highest expression level， coinciding with the developmental phase of secondary axis in red globe grapevine inflorescence. Therefore， it is hypothesized that VvBES1-1 plays a crucial role during this developmental period. Tobacco heterologous transformation assay demonstrated delayed flowering and shortened internodes in transgenic plants expressing VvBES1-1 gene， indicating altered phenotypic traits. Upon treatment with exogenous BR， the expression of the VvBES1-1 gene was upregulated. The expression of VvBES1-1 was increased first and then decreased， which was consistent with the light-mediated regulation of floral differentiation in Red Globe grapevine. In conclusion， this study provides a theoretical framework elucidating the role of VvBES1-1 in red and blue light-mediated BR signaling for controlling flower bud differentiation in the Red Globe grape.
Galacturonosyltransferase （GAUT） serves as a pivotal enzyme in the pectin biosynthesis and plays a crucial role in orchestrating the growth and development of plant tissues and organs such as cell walls within stems and leaves. To investigate the expression of GAUT in grape stems and leaves after shoot-pinching treatments， using Kyoho grapes （Vitis labrusca×Vitis vinifera） as the material， the VvGAUTs genes were cloned， the gene structures and functions were predicted and analyzed by bioinformatics methods， and their expression patterns in Kyoho grapes after shooting-pinching treatments were analyzed with quantitative real-time PCR （qRT-PCR）. The results indicated that four GAUTs genes were cloned from the Kyoho grapes， with open reading frame （ORF） sequence lengths of 1 056， 1 167， 1 038 and 1 071 bp， encoding 351， 388， 345 and 356 amino acids， respectively. The sequence homology with the corresponding genes in the grape genome database exceeded 98%， thus designated as VvGAUT1a， VvGAUT1b， VvGAUT3 and VvGAUT4a. The encoding protein of VvGAUT1a is stable， while other three proteins are unstable. The VvGAUTs exhibit close interactions with proteins associated with cellulose， lignin， and glucose metabolism. Significant differences were observed in the expression patterns of VvGAUTs in stems and leaves of Kyoho grapes subjected to different shoot-pinching treatments. In general， 2-leaf pinching treatment suppressed the expression of VvGAUTs genes in Kyoho grapes stems， while their expressions in leaves exhibited an increasing trend during early growth and subsequent inhibition during late growth. Furthermore， the expression levels of VvGAUT1a， VvGAUT1b and VvGAUT3 genes in both stems and leaves of Kyoho grapes were significantly higher during the early stage of growth compared to the late stage. Conversely， VvGAUT4a was upregulated in the stems at late stage， while its expression levels remained relatively stable in the leaves. These findings in this study suggested that shoot-pinching treatments regulated the expression of VvGAUTs genes in Kyoho grapes， thereby potentially play a crucial role in modulating stem and leaf growth， as well as balancing vegetative and reproductive growth. It provides a theoretical foundation for underlying the molecular mechanisms in regulation of grapevine growth through shoot-pinching.
Basic leucine zipper （bZIP） transcription factors are one of the most widely distributed and structurally conserved families in eukaryotes and play important roles in plant growth processes. To verify the role of bZIP transcription factors in adversity stress， this study screened 27 bZIP genes involved in drought-rehydration stress by analyzing the transcriptome data. After calculation of the correlation coefficients and construction of the co-expression network map， ZmbZIP84 （Zm00001d053988） was found to be the core node gene. This gene is located on maize chromosome 4 and has a highly conserved bZIP structural domain. Analysis of the physicochemical properties revealed that the protein coded by ZmbZIP84 is hydrophilic and an unstable protein. A phylogenetic tree was constructed and ZmbZIP84 was most closely related to those in willow millet and sorghum. The quantitative real-time PCR （qRT-PCR） results showed that ZmbZIP84 was expressed in all tissues of maize， with the highest expression in mature roots. Setting up simulated tests such as 20% PEG-6000， 42 ℃ high temperature， 200 mmol·L-1 NaCl and lack of ammonium nitrogen， it was found that the expression of ZmbZIP84 was significantly up-regulated under high temperature， drought， and nitrogen treatments， while the expression was down-regulated under NaCl treatments， which indicated that ZmbZIP84 actively participated in and responded to abiotic stresses. Using CRISPR/Cas9 technology to obtain Arabidopsis thaliana homozygous deletion mutants of ZmbZIP84 gene， it was found that the growth of the mutant plants was severely inhibited， the leaves wilted and even dried to death under high temperature and drought stress treatments， whereas the wild-type plants were less affected， suggesting that knockout of ZmbZIP84 gene reduced the drought and high temperature tolerance. Subcellular localization revealed that the protein encoded by this gene is located in the nucleus. The results of this study laid the foundation for subsequent study on the function of ZmbZIP84 gene and the regulatory mechanism of the downstream target genes， which will provide a reference for breeding new resistant maize varieties.
In this study， the antibody against channel catfish （Ictalurus punctatus） ZBTB38 was prepared， and these antibodies were used to investigate the expression patterns of ZBTB38 in gonadal tissues. The partial gene sequence of zbtb38 gene was codon-optimized and ligated to the pET32a（+） vector to construct the recombinant plasmid pET32a（+）-zbtb38. Furthermore， the recombinant plasmids were transferred into Escherichia coli BL21 （DE3） for induction and expression，then the recombinant protein was detected by SDS-PAGE， Western blot and LC-MS. The rabbit anti channel catfish ZBTB38 polyclonal antibodies was prepared with the purified recombinant protein. The antibody titer and specificity were detected by ELISA and Western blot， respectively. Finally， the expression of ZBTB38 in gonads was detected by Western blot， and verified with quantitative real-time PCR. The results showed that the titer of the prepared rabbit anti-ZBTB38 polyclonal antibodies of channel catfish reached 1∶（5.12×105）， which can specifically recognize the ZBTB38 protein expressed in the gonadal tissue of catfish. The expression levels of ZBTB38 in testis tissue is significantly higher than those in ovary tissue. And， the results of Western blot and qRT-PCR were consistent. In conclusion， the study successfully prepared the polyclonal antibodies of channel catfish ZBTB38， which provides a reference for further researches on the function of channel catfish zbtb38 gene.
To investigate the molecular mechanism of melon （Cucumis melo L.） in response to waterlogging stress， we conducted a comparative analysis of the transcriptome and proteome of the waterlogging-sensitive accession L39 and the waterlogging-tolerant accession L45 under normal water supply and waterlogging stress conditions. In the leaves of waterlogging-stressed L39， a total of 3 532 genes showed differential expression compared to the control， while in L45， 1 842 genes showed differential expression. Additionally， we identified 105 and 38 differentially expressed proteins in the comparison groups L39-W vs L39-C and L45-W vs L45-C， respectively. Comparing the transcriptome and proteome datasets， we observed that 38 and 12 genes exhibited jointly up-regulated and down-regulated expression profiles at the mRNA and protein levels in the L39-W vs L39-C comparison， whereas 7 genes showed co-up-regulated expression and three genes displayed co-down-regulated expression in the L45-W vs L45-C comparison. The KEGG pathway analysis revealed that the co-up-regulated genes in the L39-W vs L39-C comparison were mainly involved in ‘flavonoid biosynthesis’， ‘phenylpropanoid biosynthesis’， ‘phenylalanine metabolism’， ‘valine， leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis’， and ‘arginine and proline metabolism’. In contrast， the co-up-regulated pathways in the L45-W vs L45-C comparison were predominantly related to ‘α-linolenic acid metabolism’， ‘flavonoid biosynthesis’， ‘phenylpropanoid biosynthesis’， and ‘linoleic acid metabolism’. By combining transcriptome and proteome data， this study provides a foundation for further exploration of key genes and pathways involved in the response of melon to waterlogging stress.
Botrytis cinerea was
In order to investigate the effect of 60Co-γ irradiation sterilization on the quality of Cortex Moutan， samples were treated with different absorbed dosage （0， 5， 10， 20， 30 kGy）. The variety of microbial load， high performance liquid chromatography （HPLC） finger-print and inhibitory activity of water extract against Staphylococcus aureus were compared before and after irradiation. A near-infrared spectrum （NIR） consistency model of Cortex Moutan was established by near-infrared spectroscopic methodology. Results showed that the total aerobic microbial， the total combined yeast/mold and the bile-tolerant gram-negative bacteria in the CortexMoutan decreased below the standard of USP-NF2023 when treated with 5 kGy. The similarity of fingerprints decreased with the increasing of irradiation absorbed doses. The water extract against staphylococcus aureus before and after irradiation in each sample showed no significant difference （P>0.05）. The near-infrared spectral consistency evaluation model was established to determinate the irradiated samples. 60Co-γ irradiation sterilization may affect the quality of Cortex Moutan， and thus the irradiation sterilization absorption dose was recommended not exceeded 5 kGy. Overall， this study provided a basis for the use of 60Co-γ irradiation on Cortex Moutan.
This study aims to investigate the wine quality variations in terms of the grape varieties， regions， and vintages in Hexi Corridor area. The electronic nose gas recognition technology was used to select the sensitive sensor for aroma substances based on the characteristic aroma compounds in wine. Each aroma compound was further classified on the sensor for accurate identification of wine. As the results， the distinctive aroma compounds can be ascribed into sensors of W2 and W7， which served as the crucial tools for discerning variations in odor characteristics among wines. The principal component analysis （PCA） model was able to differentiate wines based on their varieties， regions， and vintages. The results demonstrated that the recognition properties of the W2 electronic nose sensor can serve as a crucial foundation for discriminating between Merlot and Cabernet Sauvignon wines. Additionally， the recognition capabilities of both W2 and W7 sensors could distinguish the Wuwei and Zhangye wines， as well as the Wuwei and Jiayuguan wines. Furthermore， the W2 sensors could be also used to identify the fresh wines. Overall， our study offers valuable insights into the aroma characteristics of wines from different grape varieties， regions， and vintages in the Hexi Corridor area.
To investigate the chemical parameters and sensory properties of blending wine， a Cabernet Sauvignon wine was used as the base wine in blending with the Melort wine at ratios of 10%， 20%， 30% and 40% and aged in oka barrels for 12-month. The physical-chemical parameters， color index， phenolics components， volatile compounds， and sensory properties of aged wine were analyzed. Results showed that addition of Merlot wine greatly reduced the alcohol content， total acid content and color intensity of Cabernet Sauvignon wine. It was found that addition of 10% and 20% of blending wine had the highest aroma intensity， which was 1.22 times higher than that of Cabernet Sauvignon wine. While addition of 20% of Merlot wine contributed to the formation of ethyl 2-furoate， diethyl malate and benzyl alcohol， which might be associated with the floral and fruity aroma in blending wine. Sensory analysis showed that addition of 20% of Merlot wine had the highest points with good coordination and silky tannins. Therefore， 20% of Merlot blending treatment showed the best color index， aroma substances and sensory quality in final wine， which provided a theoretical basis in wine blending.
To study the effect of vibration stress on the quality of cherry tomatoes after harvest， cherry tomatoes with undamaged， uniform mature， and same size were selected. The fruits were placed on a vibration test bench and treated at two vibration frequencies ［i.e.， 2 Hz （CL1） and 3 Hz （CL2）］ to simulate different transportation road conditions. The untreated fruits were used as control （CK） sample. After 10 h of treatment， the cherry tomatoes were stored at 8 ℃. The physiological indicators and electrical characteristics of these cherry tomatoes were measured in an interval of 3 days. Results showed that vibration stress had great impact on the postharvest quality of cherry tomatoes. With the storage prolonging， the groups of CL1 and CL2 showed significant differences （P<0.05） in soluble solids， acetaldehyde， relative conductivity， ascorbic acid， and hydrogen peroxide compared to the CK group. The differences in the CL2 group were extremely significant （P<0.01）. In addition， compared to the CK group， the equivalent parallel capacitance （Cp） values of the vibration-treated CL1 and CL2 groups increased dramatically， while the equivalent parallel resistance （Rp） and complex impedance （Z） values decreased. The changes in both physiological quality and electrical characteristics were observed in the order of CL2 > CL1 > CK. The study indicated that the higher of vibration frequency， the more pronounced damage to the physiological quality and electrical characteristics of cherry tomatoes. According to correlation analysis of physiological quality and electrical characteristics， it was found that titratable acidity and relative conductivity had the highest correlation with electrical characteristics. This may indicate that electrical characteristics can be used for the detection of physiological quality. Overall， this study provided a theoretical basis for mitigating physiological quality damage and quality testing of electrical characteristics during the logistics and transportation of cherry tomatoes.
To clarify the nutritional quality and aroma characteristics of Fuhong plum during ripening period， the composition and content of sugars， organic acids， amino acids， and volatile components of Fuhong plum at three mature stages were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography and gas chromatography ion migration spectrometer. Results showed that sucrose was the main sugar in Fuhong plum， accounting for 49.28% of the total soluble sugar， followed by glucose and fructose. Among organic acids， malic acid was the main compound that accounted for 88.76%， while the content of other organic acids was relatively low. The soluble sugar， sucrose content， and sugar acid ratio in Fuhong plum increased continuously during fruit ripening period. The content of nine non-essential amino acids and seven essential amino acids ranged from 11.58 to 357.47 μg·g-1 and 55.59 to 176.63 μg·g-1， respectively. Among the essential amino acids， leucine was found to have the highest content， followed by lysine and threonine， and the lowest content was methionine. Most amino acids tended to accumulate more at 140 days after flowering and 150 days after flowering during late maturity. The main volatile components of Fuhong plum were aldehydes， esters， and alcohols， with hexanal and 2-hexene-1-ol had the highest peak intensity. There were differences in volatile components among the three mature stages. Overall， this study analyzed the main quality components of Fuhong plum and the accumulation patterns during the mature stage， which provided a theoretical basis for high-quality plum breeding.
With the increasing of fruit production and high demand of food quality， the rapid non-destructive determination technique of fruit quality， safety and authenticity is becoming urgent. This study mainly summarized the application of non-destructive technologies such as spectroscopy， mechanics， acoustics， computer vision， electronic nose and electronic tongue， combined with complexed chemometrics. These methods aimed to explore fruit quality characteristics including the nutrient functional components and sensory properties， determine fruit safety including pesticide residues and disease mildew， identify authenticity of origin， variety and storage time. Meanwhile， future prospect was proposed from the perspectives of production and scientific research. Thus， this study provided more scientific basis for fruit quality and safety supervision and consumer rights protection.
To protect and develop the old vine resources of wine grape in the Wei Bei arid region， this study systematically compared the botanical characteristics， growth and development habits， cane uprightness， cold resistance， berry characteristics， and winemaking properties of Muscat Blanc and Muscat Rouge， two old vine resources of wine grape. The results showed that both Muscat Blanc and Muscat Rouge possessed strong and upright canes. Compared to Cabernet Sauvignon， the width of xylem in new shoots was significantly greater and the distribution area of lignin was wider. This improved the mechanical performance and load capacity of canes， making them suitable for non-trellis cultivation. Additionally， Muscat Blanc and Muscat Rouge had high budburst rates， fruiting shoot rates， fruiting coefficients and average yield per plant， suggesting their good productivity. Both Muscat Blanc and Muscat Rouge showed strong resistance to low temperatures and， therefore， did not require burying in soil to protect against winter cold in the Wei Bei arid region. The study also found that Muscat Blanc berries had light green skin with a slight red blush， a reducing sugar content of 195.17 g·L-1， and a titratable acidity of 5.97 g·L-1 at the mature stage. These berries had a low content of phenolic compounds， making them suitable for producing refreshing dry white wine. The matured berries of Muscat Rouge had purple-red skin， a reducing sugar content of 208.33 g·L-1， and a titratable acidity of 3.64 g·L-1. These berries had a high content of phenolic compounds， making them suitable for producing fresh rose wine. Lastly， the dry white wine made from small containers showed an alcohol content of 11.12% （V/V）， a total acidity of 5.06 g·L-1， and a total sugar content of 2.70 g·L-1. The rose wine had an alcohol content of 12.97% （V/V）， a total acidity of 4.69 g·L-1， and a total sugar content of 2.87 g·L-1. The grape berries and produced wines of the two old vine resources had a rose flavor. The results of this study provide some guidance for the breeding of wine grape cultivars.
The aim of this study was to ascertain the effects of intercropping with Robinia pseudoacacia on rhizosphere bacterial community structure and its relationship with soft rot disease in Amorphophallus konjac， which could enable a holistic understanding of rhizosphere microecological characteristics under specific intercropping patterns. R. pseudoacacia and A. konjac plants were grown under three root separation treatments： complete separation by a plastic film （monocropping， without root exudate exchange or root interaction）， semi-separation by a nylon mesh （semi-cropping， with root exudate exchange but no root interaction）， and non-separation （intercropping， with root exudate exchange and root interaction）. Illumina high-throughput sequencing and quantitative real-time PCR were used to analyze bacterial diversity， and community composition， as well as the abundance of soil nitrogen cycling-related functional genes in A. konjac roots and rhizosphere soils under the different treatments. The results indicated that the alpha diversity indices of root and rhizosphere bacterial communities markedly increased with the enhancement of root interaction. The beta diversity of rhizosphere bacterial communities showed prominent variation between the non-separation and complete separation treatments. At the genus level， Davorsia， Polariella， Luteomonas， Streptomyces， and Lysobacter accounted for high proportions of total abundance in the root and rhizosphere soils across all treatments. The relative abundance of Promicromonospora was the highest in the rhizosphere soils of semi-separation treatment， whereas Streptomyces， Rhizobium， and Lysobacter comprised large proportions in the root and rhizosphere soils of semi-separation and non-separation treatments. The copy numbers of nitrogen cycling-related genes encoding nitrogenase （nifH）， nitrite reductase （nirS）， nitrous oxide reductase （nosZ）， and ammonia monooxygenase from ammonia-oxidizing archaea （AOA amoA） notably increased in the rhizosphere soils of non-separation treatment compared with those of complete separation treatment. A. konjac soft rot disease index decreased by 100.0% and 50.0%-100.0% under the non-separation and semi-separation treatments， respectively， in contrast with the complete separation treatment. This study indicates that intercropping with R. pseudoacacia reduces the incidence of soft rot disease in A. konjac by improving bacterial diversity， altering community structure， enriching beneficial bacteria， and increasing nitrogen cycling-related gene copy numbers in the rhizosphere soil. The findings have implications for guiding soil microecological restoration and soil-borne disease control in A. konjac field through agricultural practices such as intercropping.
To investigate the effects of cultivation pattern and growth phases on the yield of the root part and aboveground part of Salvia miltiorrhiza， as well as the effects on the content of the main active ingredients in this plant， the two-factor six-treatment experiment with plants of purple S.miltiorrhiza was carried out as the following： plants cultivated by single row in small ridge with three cultivation densities 80 000 plants∙hm-2， 100 000 plants∙hm-2， 133 000 plants∙hm-2 formed treatments H1， H2， H3 respectively， and the ones cultivated by double row in large ridge with the same three densities above formed treatments H4， H5， H6. By dynamic sampling， the plants from the different ridge cultivation patterns， planting densities， and growth phases， were subjected to measurement and analysis for the single plant weight， yield， the contents of the main active ingredients and accumulation rule. The results showed that the average values of single plant dry weight， yield， and content of main active components in roots of S miltiorrhiza from the
To fully excavate the potential of chemical regulation technology in increasing soybean yield within strip intercropping system， the soybean-maize strip intercropping system was used as the research object， and Nandou 25 as the experimental material. Different plant growth regulators were selected， including maleic hydrazide （MH）， indole-3-acetic acid （IAA）， 6-benzylaminopurine （6-BA）， 24-epibrassioolide （EBR）， 2，3，5-triiodobenzoic acid （TIBA）， uniconazole （S3307）， diethyl aminoethyl hexanoate （DTA-6）， and water as the control treatment （CK）， and sprayed on soybean leaves at the fourth trifoliolate stage （V4）. The experiment aimed to explore the effects of different regulators on soybean photosynthesis， dry matter accumulation and allocation and yield at main stem and branch structure of soybean. The results indicated that all regulators increased the soybean SPAD value， net photosynthetic rate， stomatal conductance， and transpiration rate of the main stem and branch leaves. Specifically， EBR， S3307， and DTA-6 significantly increased soybean leaf area index， dry matter accumulation， and population yield compared to CK. In all regulators， DTA-6 exhibited superior performance in coordinating stem and branch growth， the dry matter accumulation of main stem and branches of soybean in R4 stage was increased by 15.62% and 30.24% compared with CK， and the branch pods allocation rate was the highest at mature stage. The yield results also showed that the branch seeds and 100-seed weight reached the maximum under DTA-6 treatment， and the soybean population yield increased by 26.01%-32.61% more than CK. In summary， DTA-6 improved photosynthetic characteristics of main stem and branch leaves of soybean in strip intercropping， and promote dry matter accumulation and allocation and yield formation. This study provides valuable theoretical references and technical support for applying chemical control in strip intercropping soybean.
To study the effect of nitrogen form on the growth of side branches of alpine Rhododendron， 3-year potted alpine Rhododendron Fen Jing-ling powder fairy was used as experimental material. A single nitrogen source treatment was used as the control， and the effects of 5 different nitrogen form ratios （ammonium and nitrate ratio： T1： 100∶0， T2： 75∶25， T3： 50∶50， T4： 25∶75 and T5： 0∶100， respectively） on collateral growth， photosynthetic characteristics， metabolic enzyme activity and nutrient accumulation in vegetative growth period were studied in pot. The results showed that there were differences between different nitrogen ratios on the dry matter accumulation of lateral branches， seedling height increment， and lateral branch length of Fen Jing-ling at different growth stages， among which the T3 treatment had the highest dry matter accumulation of lateral branches at the stage of lateral bud germination and the T2 treatment had significantly higher seedling height increment and lateral branch length than the other treatments at the stage of shoot lateral branches and semi-lignification of lateral branches. During the semi-lignification stage of lateral branches， compared with T1 treatment， T2 treatment significantly increased net photosynthetic rate， transpiration rate， stomatal conductance， water use efficiency， and phosphorus content while reducing intercellular carbon dioxide concentration. The absorption of Fe element in leaves was the highest in T1 treatment， and the absorption of Mg element was the highest in T5 treatment. In addition， nitrate reductase activity increased with the increase in nitrate nitrogen ratio at different growth stages， with the highest enzyme activity occurring during the tender branch stage. In summary， the effects of different nitrogen ratios on the growth and physiological characteristics of the side branches of the Rhododendron Fen Jing-ling vary. The mixed nitrogen source treatment promoted the growth of the side branches compared to a single nitrogen source treatment， with an ammonium-nitrogen ratio of 75∶25 being more conducive to the growth of the side branches，improving nutrient accumulation and photosynthetic efficiency. This study provides a theoretical basis for optimizing nitrogen fertilizing strategies and nitrogen application methods suitable for the growth and development of alpine rhododendrons， thereby improving the cultivation and management level of seedling quality.
In order to explore the effect of LED light quality treatment on the color of pepper fruit， LED blue light （450 nm）， LED green light （520 nm）， LED red light （660 nm） and LED white light with light intensity of 140 μmol·m-2·s-1 were used， among which LED white light was the control. Under the conditions of temperature 25 ℃， relative humidity 80% and photoperiod 12 h， the pepper fruits 30 days after flowering were irradiated. The color indexes， total chlorophyll content， total carotenoid content， total flavonoid relative content， total anthocyanin relative content， β-carotene content， lutein content， β-cryptoxanthin content， zeaxanthin content， capsanthin content， American Spice Trade Association （ASTA） color value and International Color Units （ICU） color value of pepper fruits were determined before irradiation and at 38 and 46 days after anthesis. The results showed that， compared with the control， LED red light could accelerate the color transformation of pepper fruits， and the color indexes of pepper fruits under LED red light irradiation were significantly better than the control. When compared to ASTA color value， it increased significantly to approximately 3.5 times at 30 days after flowering， capsanthin content increased significantly to 27 times between 38 and 30 days after flowering （P<0.05）. At 46 days after flowering， the capsanthin content and ASTA color value under LED red light were significantly higher than those under the control （P<0.05）. In contrast， LED green light and LED blue light delayed the normal color transformation of the pepper fruit. In conclusion， LED red light irradiation of pepper fruits during the pre-green ripening stage can hasten color change， considerably hasten capsanthin production， and hasten the growth of ASTA color value （P<0.05）. The findings of this research offer novel insights into how LED light quality might hasten the pre-harvest color change of pepper fruits， particularly the accumulation of capsanthin， and increase the quality of fruit color.