Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences ›› 2021, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (11): 2616-2625.DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.11.2616

• Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of Optimal Management on Tillering Quality and Yield of Two Spike-Type Wheat Cultivars in Hilly Dryland of Sichuan

XIAO Yun1(), CHEN Songhe1, YANG Hongkun1, ZHANG Xue1, GUO Xiang2, FAN Gaoqiong1,*()   

  1. 1College of Agronomy, Sichuan Agricultural University/Key Laboratory of Crop Eco-physiology and Farming System in Southwest China, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wenjiang, Sichuan 611130
    2Sichuan Agro-meteorological Center, Chengdu, Sichuan 610072
  • Received:2020-10-20 Accepted:2021-01-07 Online:2021-11-10 Published:2021-09-18
  • Contact: FAN Gaoqiong

优化栽培管理对四川丘陵旱地不同穗型小麦分蘖质量与产量形成的影响

肖云1(), 陈松鹤1, 杨洪坤1, 张雪1, 郭翔2, 樊高琼1,*()   

  1. 1四川农业大学农学院/农业农村部西南作物生理生态与耕作重点实验室,四川 温江 611130
    2四川省农业气象中心,四川 成都 610072
  • 通讯作者: 樊高琼
  • 作者简介:肖云,男,主要从事小麦栽培管理研究。E-mail: 718522814@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划项目(2016YFD0300400);四川省农作物育种攻关项目(2016NYZ005);国家公益性行业(农业)科研专项(201503127)

Abstract:

In order to explore the effects of optimal management on tillering quality and yield of two spike-type wheat cultivars in Sichuan hilly dryland, the multiple-spike cultivar of Chuannong-16 and the large-spike cultivar of Chuanmai-104 were used in this study. The present study aimed to investigate the optimal management of tiller quality and yield formation in a dryland farming system. During 2017—2019, the optimal management included straw mulching, dried pig manure and early sowing at appropriate periods were integrated, and the local conventional management (CM) was set as the control. The management practice was set as the main plot, and cultivar with contrasting tiller capability as a subplot. The results showed that the emerging rate of effective tillers was increased by 65.7% under the optimal management, and the period of effective tillering was shortened by 1.6 d compared with CM. The tiller emerging rate at 1st (T1) and 2nd (T2) positions were 8.0 and 27.4 percentage points higher than that of CM, respectively. The leaf age of the first and second tillers at jointing reached 4.1 and 3.1, respectively. The nonstructural carbohydrates and N% at jointing stage were improved under optimal management, and the NSC content in flowering stage was also 1.0~3.4 percentage points higher than that of CM. Compared with CM, the optimal management improved dry matter accumulation of main stem by 39.8%, 12.7% and 9.9% at jointing, flowering and maturating stages, respectively. The dry matter accumulation of tillers was increased by 99.2%, 35.3% and 37.1%, respectively, the biomass of tillers accounts for above-ground plant biomass was increased by 6.2 percentage points compared with CM, and the HI increased from 0.40 to 0.45. Path analysis showed that effective panicle was the key factor limiting the yield of two spike types of wheat, the effective panicle and yield of Chuanmai-104 were increased by 11.0% to 18.4% and 13.5% to 30.5%, respectively, while those of Chuannong-16 were 4.5% to 8.7% and 22.2% to 23.7%, respectively. This study suggested that the optimal management of early sowing under the conditon of straw mulch combined with dry pig manure in the autumn slack season improved plant nitrogen nutrition, promoted photosynthetic production, and reduced the asymmetric competition between main stem and tillers, thus improved tillering quality and yield in a dry hilly farming system. The optimal management combined with large spike cultivar improved is a green high-yield management model for the hilly dryland.

Key words: wheat, hilly dry land, optimal management, grain yield, tillering quality

摘要:

为探究优化栽培管理对四川丘陵旱地不同穗型小麦分蘖质量与产量形成的影响,本研究于2017—2019年,以大穗型品种川麦104和多穗型品种川农16为材料,在秋闲季秸秆覆盖配施干猪粪条件下适期早播形成优化栽培管理,并以当地常规栽培管理为对照,解析优化栽培管理对小麦分蘖质量与产量形成的影响。结果表明,优化栽培管理下有效分蘖发生速率提高65.7%,发生期较常规栽培缩短1.6 d,第一、第二叶位分蘖发生率分别提高8.0和27.4个百分点,拔节时第一、第二叶位分蘖叶龄分别达到4.1和3.1;优化栽培管理提高了小麦拔节期N含量和非结构性碳水化合物(NSC)含量,开花期NSC含量也较常规栽培管理提高1.0~3.4个百分点;优化栽培管理下拔节期、开花期、成熟期干物质积累量显著增加,主茎干物质积累量分别提高39.8%、12.7%和9.9%,分蘖干物质积累量分别提高99.2%、35.3%和37.1%,且成熟期分蘖干物质占比较常规栽培管理增加6.2个百分点,收获指数由0.40增加到0.45(两品种两年均值)。通径分析表明,有效穗是限制两种穗型小麦产量提升的关键因子,优化栽培管理下川麦104有效穗增加11.0%~18.4%,增产13.5%~30.5%;川农16有效穗增加4.5%~8.7%,增产22.2%~23.7%。研究认为,秋闲季秸秆覆盖配施干猪粪条件下适期早播形成的优化栽培管理,可充分发挥系统优势,促进植株氮素吸收和光合生产,减弱主茎与分蘖的非对称竞争,促进优势分蘖成穗、增产,是适合四川丘陵旱地绿色丰产的栽培管理模式,配合大穗型小麦增产效果更佳。

关键词: 小麦, 丘陵旱地, 优化栽培, 产量, 分蘖质量