Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences ›› 2021, Vol. 35 ›› Issue (8): 1825-1831.DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.08.1825

• IFood Irradiation·Food Science • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Determination of Harvesting Time of Gui Re No.1 Macadamia Nuts Suitable for Processing of Slotted Nut

HE Peng, ZHANG Tao, SONG Haiyun, ZHENG Shufang, QIN Zhenshi*, HUANG Xiyun, TANG Xiuhua, WANG Wenlin*   

  1. South Subtropical Agricultural Science Research Institute of Guangxi, Longzhou, Guangxi 532415
  • Received:2020-04-23 Revised:2020-06-11 Online:2021-08-10 Published:2021-06-11

适于开口带壳果加工的澳洲坚果桂热1号采收期的确定

贺鹏, 张涛, 宋海云, 郑树芳, 覃振师*, 黄锡云, 汤秀华, 王文林*   

  1. 广西南亚热带农业科学研究所,广西 龙州 532415
  • 通讯作者: *覃振师,男,高级农艺师,主要从事果树育种栽培研究。E-mail:39431642@qq.com;王文林,男,高级农艺师,主要从事果树育种栽培研究。E-mail:3858533@163.com。同为通讯作者。
  • 作者简介:贺鹏,男,助理研究员,主要从事果品加工与贮藏研究。E-mail:727250894@qq.com
  • 基金资助:
    广西培养新世纪学术和技术带头人专项资金资助项目(2018),广西科技重大专项(桂科AA17202037-9),广西科技基地和人才专项(桂科AD18281087),特色水果产业科技先锋队(桂农科JZ202008)

Abstract: In order to investigate the changes of kernel quality and slotted effect of the macadamia nut Cultivar Gui Re No. 1 (Gui 1, the main macadamia nut variety in Guangxi) at different harvest time, and determine the suitable harvest time for processing slotted nuts, the nuts in shell of Gui 1 at four harvest periods of I (August 20), II (August 30), III (September 9) and IV (September 19) were used as raw material in this study. The qualified rate of opening, shell-off rate, perfect kernel ratio, fat, total sugar, protein and amino acid in the kernels of different maturity were determined. The indexes of inclusion and slotted effect were analyzed by variability analysis, correlation analysis, stepwise regression analysis and comprehensive evaluation. The results demonstrated that the contents of qualified opening ratio, rate of sticky caryopsis, plumpness of nutlet in different maturity raw nuts were above 98.57%, 55.67%, 75.67%, respectively. The contents of fat, total carbohydrate, protein and the nutritional value of amino acids in different maturity raw nuts were above 8.52 g·100g-1, 2.92 g·100g-1, 76.23 g·100g-1, 72.14, respectively. The qualified rate, shell-off rate and perfect kernel ratio were greatly influenced by the harvest time. Although the perfect kernel ratio of I kernel was not as good as that of other harvest periods, while there was no significant difference in fruit quality between I and other harvest periods. The qualified rate of fruit opening and shelling rate in I were better than other harvest periods, and the comprehensive evaluation score was the highest. Therefore, it can be concluded that the I-picked macadamia nuts are the most suitable for the slotted nut processing. This study could provide useful information for determining the appropriate harvesting time of Guire 1 suitable for processing of slotted nut.

Key words: Macadamia integrifolia, slotted effect, nutritional ingredient, factor analysis, comprehensive evaluation

摘要: 为探明广西澳洲坚果主栽品种桂热1号(简称桂1)不同采收期果实品质和开口效果变化规律,确定开口带壳果加工的最适采收期,本试验以Ⅰ(8月20号)、Ⅱ(8月30号)、Ⅲ(9月9号)、Ⅳ(9月19号)4个采收期(正负误差1 d)的澳洲坚果果实为材料,测定开口合格率、离壳率、完整果仁率、脂肪含量、总糖含量、蛋白质含量、氨基酸含量,再对内含物指标及开口效果指标进行变异性分析、相关性分析、逐步回归分析、综合评价。结果表明,4个采收期澳洲坚果的开口合格率在98.57%以上,离壳果率在55.67%以上,完整果仁率在75.67%以上,蛋白质含量在8.52 g·100g-1以上,总糖含量在2.92 g·100g-1 以上,脂肪含量在76.23 g·100g-1以上,氨基酸比值系数分在72.14以上。尽管采收Ⅰ期澳州坚果的完整果仁率不如其他采收期,但其果实品质指标与其他采收期无显著差异,果实开口合格率、离壳率较其他采收期好,综合评价得分最高,因而认为在采收Ⅰ期采收桂1澳洲坚果果实最适于开口带壳果加工。本研究为确定澳洲坚果桂热1号果实最佳采收期提供了理论依据。

关键词: 澳洲坚果, 开口效果, 营养成分, 因子分析, 综合评价