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  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    WU Mengjie, HONG Jiadu, LI Fangyan, ZHOU Shengcai, LIN Erpei, CHENG Longjun
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(8): 1516-1522. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.08.1516

    Phoebe bournei (Hemsl.) Yang is an important and precious tree species in China. This study aimed to establish a genetic transformation system for P. bournei, pCAMBIA1300-GFP plasmid was constructed and transformed into seedlings with Agrobacterium rhizogenes. To optimize the transformation process, injection and soaking in bacterial solution were compared. Subsequently, an orthogonal [L9(33)] experiment was employed to determine the optimal combination A. rhizogenes strain type, bacterial solution concentration, and seedling age. In addition, the effects of light intensity on induction and transformational rate of P. bournei hairy roots were also examined. The results showed that hairy roots induction and transformation rate with injection method were 80.0% and 66.7% respectively, whereas only 41.2% and 35.3%with soaking method. The main factors affecting the hairy root induction rate and genetic transformation of P. bournei were strain species. Notably, strain type exhibited a substantial influence on both induction and transformation efficiency of hairy roots. The maximum induction and transformation rates were 87.5% and 70.6% respectively. The optimal strain was K599 with concentration of OD600=1.2, and the seedlings at the three-leaf stage was the best The seedlings growth, hairy roots induction and transformation efficiency of P. bournei seedlings under lower light intensity (50 μmol·m-2·s-1) were more favorable for seedling growth and transformation than high light intensity (100 μmol·m-2·s-1). This study established an efficient and steady transgenic system for P. bournei mediated by A. rhizogenes, thereby obtained transgenic hairy roots plants. That provided a useful platform for molecular genetic research of P. bournei and laying the foundation for important gene exploration, new germplasm development and genetic improvement of P. bournei.

  • Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology
    CAO Xiaoqing, LI Lu, ZHANG Fengwei, DAI Fei, ZHANG Fangyuan, LI Xiangyang, QIAO Weihao
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(5): 1076-1087. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.05.1076
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    Mulching technique is a widely used agricultural technology. The traditional plastic film currently in use brings huge economic benefits, but also induces serious ecological pollution problems and affects the sustainable development of agriculture, so the development of environmentally degradable mulching films is an inevitable trend. This study systematically describes the research progress and application status of the preparation materials, preparation technologies and products of photodegradable mulching film, biodegradable mulching film, photo/biodegradable mulching film, liquid mulching film and plant-fiber mulching film at home and abroad, as well as the advantages and shortcomings of the five types of degradable mulching films, and provides an outlook on the research direction and development prospects of plant-fiber mulching film. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for further development of green, environmentally friendly and completely biodegradable agricultural mulching films to promote green and sustainable development of agriculture.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    ZHOU Danrong, YE Xinfu, FANG Zhizhen, LIN Yanjuan, CHEN Wenguang
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(12): 2317-2326. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.12.2317

    In order to alleviate the effects of insufficient chilling on abnormal flower bud differentiation in plum which was common in the main plum producing areas in southern China, breeding new varieties of plum with high quality was an urgent need. Sanyueli (Prunus salicina L.), which had the characteristics of early-maturing and low-chilling-requirement, was selected as the material. The annual branches of Sanyueli were chosen for Cobalt 60-ray (60Co-γ) irradiation (50 Gy), and then single-bud was grafted on the branch of 3-year-old peach (Prunus persica L.). Among the grafted seedlings, a mutant with obvious variation in color and maturity stage was obtained. It was finally named Fuhong. To evaluate the quality and advantages of Fuhong and breed new varieties, the differences between Fuhong and Sanyueli in morphological characteristics, biological characteristics, quality characteristics, disease resistance, and yield were compared through phenotypic observation, quality analysis and molecular identification. The results showed that Fuhong retained the characteristic of low-chilling-requirement of Sanyueli. Furthermore, its color of peel and flesh were mutated into purple red, and the maturity period was delayed about 40 d. The weight of single fruit of Fuhong increased by 2.67 times, which was significantly higher than that of Sanyueli (P < 0.01); and the content of soluble solid, the ratio of sugar to acid were also significantly higher than those of Sanyueli (P < 0.01). The regional test in three ecological areas of Fujian showed that Fuhong had excellent and stable yield performance, higher than that of Sanyueli. This new plum variety Fuhong had the advantages of low-chilling-requirement, red flesh, large fruit weight, high sweetness and better quality. It would be preferable in market promotion.

  • Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology
    DENG Xiaohua, ZHU Lin, LI Sijun, WU Wenxin, JIANG Zhimin, ZHANG Cheng, WEN Yongcai, HU Qinghui
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(4): 854-864. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.04.0854

    In order to clarify the suitable maturity for one-time plucking of six middle flue-cured tobacco leaves of paddy-tobacco, Yunyan 87 was used as material, and three treatments of low maturity (M1), medium maturity (M2) and high maturity (M3) were designed to carry out the harvesting and curing experiments of different maturity of middle tobacco leaves in Guiyang tobacco area of Hunan, and the fuzzy evaluation method was used to comprehensively evaluate the test results. The results showed that the SPAD value of fresh tobacco and proportion of greenish tobacco leaves decreased, and the proportion of variegated tobacco increased; tobacco maturity was improved, and leaf structure was loosened; the single leaf weight of tobacco decreased; the contents of total sugar, reducing sugar and starch decreased, the contents of nicotine, potassium and chlorogenic acid increased, and the availability of chemical components increased; tobacco yield and output value decreased, as the harvest maturity of middle tobacco leaves increased. Compared with M1 and M3, the index of appearance quality of M2 treatment was 12.12% and 0.73% higher; the availability index of chemical components was 11.74% and -0.70% higher; total score of smoking quality was 0.53% and 5.42% higher; the economic properties index was 2.62% and 12.54% higher; index of tobacco quality was 3.46% and 3.16% higher; and the comprehensive economic effect index was 2.78% and 7.57% higher. The suitable harvest maturity of Yunyan 87 at one-time plucking of six middle flue-cured tobacco leaves in Guiyang tobacco area of Hunan requires 20%~70% yellowing of blade face, 1/3 white to full white of tobacco midrib and 1/4 white to full white of branch vein. When the SPAD value of fresh tobacco was 22.43~29.69, it provided a reference for guiding the appropriate harvest maturity of middle tobacco leaves of paddy-tobacco of Yunyan 87.The middle tobacco leaves of paddy- tobacco can be harvested at one time to improve quality and benefit.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    DUAN Lianfeng, LI Ying, LIU Xiaona, DONG Yan, YU Shouchao, LI Jun
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(4): 730-739. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.04.0730

    Hemerocallis is a traditional garden plant in China, which has high economic value because it can be used as both food and medicine. Although the natural distribution of Hemerocallis is the largest in china, the related research lags behind foreign countries. At present, the horticultural varieties used in China mainly rely on foreign imports, and hortiaultural varieties with our own intellectual property rights are relatively few.In this paper, the germplasm resources of domestic Hemerocallis were introduced in detail, and the breeding achievements of new Hemerocallis varieties at home and abroad were summarized from the perspectives of different breeding objectives, such as flower shape, flower aroma, flower color, flowering period, cold resistance, disease resistance, etc. The breeding achievements of new Hemerocallis varieties at flowering time and cold resistance at home were highlighted. At the same time, the new breeding technology was summarized, and the problems and prospects in the domestic Hemerocallis breeding were discussed, which aimed to provide reference for the breeding new varieties of Hemerocallis.

  • Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology
    LU Zhaoyang, WANG Hongyu, XUE Tingting, LIU Wenxiang, CHEN Xiaoguang, YU Hanqing
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(9): 1833-1842. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.09.1833

    To evaluate the effectiveness of soil restoration measures in erosion-degraded forestlands in red soil region of South China, a typical erosion-degraded Pinus massoniana forestland was selected, which located in Ningdu County, Jiangxi province. Seven treatments were set up in this trial: no restoration measures (CT), fish scale pit + tree-grass (FG), fish scale pit + tree-shrubs (FS), fish scale pit + tree-shrubs-grass (FGS), small horizontal ditch + tree-grass (FGP), small horizontal ditch + tree-shrubs (FSP), small horizontal ditch + tree-shrubs-grass (FGSP). The response of soil erosion and nutrient loss to different restoration measures in the erosion-degraded forestlands was evaluated using the 7Be tracing technique. Results showed that the 7Be inventory residual percentage under different restoration measures was -6.84% to -33.13%. Soil erosion rate under different restoration measures ranged from 4.43 to 24.04 t·hm-2·event-1. The sediment reduction rate was 21.19%-85.49% compared with the CT, and the maximum were 85.49% and 83.81% under FGSP and FGS respectively. Compared with CT, the percentages of increment of soil organic carbon (SOC), total nitrogen (TN), available nitrogen (AN) in each restoration measures were 25.10%-65.71%, 9.79%-46.85%, -30.68%-1.29%, respectively. Under two engineering measures, integrated vegetation measures (i.e. FGSP and FGS) of tree-shrubs-grass significantly reduced soil carbon and nitrogen loss, but there was no significant difference between the two engineering measures. The Pearson correlation and stepwise regression analysis suggested that 7Be was significantly and positively correlated with SOC, TN and AN content (P<0.01). RBe and VC explained 94.7% of variation of SOC loss; RBe, TN and VC explained 98.3% of variation of TN loss; and RBe explained 85.6% of variation of AN loss, which indicated that that SOC, TN and AN were physically transported with 7Be during soil erosion process, and soil carbon and nitrogen nutrient loss was influenced by coupling interactions of vegetation-soil-soil and water processes. 7Be allowed effective evaluation of short-term soil erosion and nutrient loss by different restoration measures. After 4 years of implementing restoration measures, the effect of integrated vegetation measures with tree-shrubs-grass on reducing soil erosion, carbon and nitrogen loss was more significant than that of soil conservation engineering measures. The results of this study provided scientific basis for assessment of ecological benefits and restoration management of erosion-degraded forestlands.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    WANG Zemin, HE Xi, ZHANG Yuhan, ZHOU Ming, HONG Lilan
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(10): 1905-1911. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.10.1905

    Irradiation mutagenesis tends to generate chromosome structural variations. So far few studies have been reported using the BSA-seq technique to map radiation-induced mutations. In order to explore the feasibility of using BSA-seq for mapping genes in radiation-induced mutants, this study isolated an Arabidopsis thaliana mutant using irradiation mutagenesis and crossed it with the wild type. Individual plants in the F2 segregating population were screened based on phenotypes, and two pools of offspring with extreme phenotypes were collected. The two offspring pools and the wild type pool were sequenced using whole genome sequencing, and various strategies including MutMap, QTL-seq, and GPS methods were used to analyze the sequencing data of these three pools. It was found that three strategies generated similar results and the mutated gene was located to an interval of 7 Mb on chromosome 2. With visualizing the genomic region within this interval by IGV software, a 25 189 bp deletion was found in the mutant genome. The deletion region was annotated using the SnpEff annotation program, and 6 genes were found in this region, among which the AT2G28610 gene was identified to be the candidate gene and verified through genetic experiments. This study provided a reference for the application of BSA-seq based approaches to map radiation-induced mutations.

  • Food Irradiation·Food Science
    SU Kenan, LIU Lili, YANG Le, WANG Mengyu
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(10): 2028-2033. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.10.2028

    In order to improve the functional properties of porcine hemoglobin (Hb) and enhance product value, this study employed an enzymatic-phosphorylation (HP) method for the modification of porcine hemoglobin. To investigate the effects of the synergistic modification on porcine hemoglobin, porcine hemoglobin and enzyme-digested porcine hemoglobin peptides (H-Hb) were used as control groups, and the functional properties and structure of the enzymatic-phosphorylated porcine hemoglobin (HP-Hb) were studied. The analysis of functional properties showed that compared to the control groups, the solubility of HP-Hb was significantly improved with an increased emulsion activity index of 12.42 and 6.30 m2·g-1P<0.05), as well as increased emulsion stability of 6.37% and 3.04% (P<0.05). The foamability of HP-Hb increased by 7.59% and 4.42% compared to the control groups (P<0.05), and the foam stability increased by 3.93% and 4.42% (P<0.05). Structural analysis showed that enzymatic digestion caused peptide chain breakage in HP-Hb, exposing more amino acid groups. Most of the phosphate groups were linked to the N atoms, and the increased presence of P-N and PO43- resulted in stronger infrared absorption peaks. Furthermore, the thermal stability of HP-Hb was significantly improved by 14.00 and 20.67 ℃ compared to H-Hb and Hb, respectively. Microstructural analysis revealed that dual modification caused a change in protein structure, transforming the molecular structure from compact block-like structure to loosely arranged blocks with smaller particle dispersion. Overall, the results indicated that HP dual modification was a feasible modification method to enhance the functional properties and stability of porcine hemoglobin. This study provides new insights for the modification of porcine hemoglobin and serves as a theoretical basis and reference for further research on the application of porcine hemoglobin in food processing.

  • Food Irradiation·Food Science
    LIU Hao, QIANG Yu, ZHANG Hongru, LIU Junmei, HAN Dong, XU Yang, ZHANG Chunhui
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(4): 793-802. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.04.0793

    In order to identify the main odors in the high-value processing of bovine bone collagen peptide powder and obtain the optimal deodorization process, this study used GC-MS combined with Relative aroma activity value to identify the main odors in the odors peptide powder. The results showed that isobutyric acid, caproic acid, acetic acid, butyric acid, isovaleric acid and valeric acid were the main volatiles of heteroolfactory flavor, which had unpleasant odor. The deodorization of bovine bone collagen peptide powder was realized by ultrasonic-assisted alkaloid-catalyzed esterification of the isooluminescence substance in the peptide powder with ethanol. The deodorization process of bovine bone collagen peptide was optimized by single factor and response surface method. When the reaction time was 28.43 min, the amount of ethanol was 3.19%, and the reaction temperature was 75.41 ℃, the highest score of sensory evaluation was 71.16, which achieved the goal of deodorization. This study provided technical support for the deodorization process and industrial production of bovine bone collagen peptide powder.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    WANG Chi, HUANG Wei, GONG Ling, HE Cong, DENG Gangqiao, DENG Ziniu, LONG Guiyou, LI Na
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(11): 2117-2125. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.11.2117

    In order to investigate the genetical variations in early coloring trait of irradiation-induced mutant Bingtang sweet orange, the early coloring of the fruits and the changes in the intrinsic quality of sugar and acid, and validate whether it was an early-maturing mutant. The mutant and the control Bingtang sweet orange were used as materials, the changes in traits and characteristics such as spring tip length, spring tip leaves, floral organs, fruit size, peel color change, and the main seasonal period were analyzed. Molecular markers were applied to identify the genetic variations, and the changes in the soluble solids, titratable acid, and solid-acid ratio, as well as the expression of the genes related to sucrose and citric acid metabolism in the fruits of the mutant and control Bingtang sweet orange were investigated. The results showed that the mutant had significantly shorter spring tips, larger fruits at maturity, peel and flesh coloring orange-yellow and orange 15 d earlier, and the main seasonal period was 2-5 d earlier than that of the control Bingtang sweet orange. Differential bands were found in the amplification in mutant with both insertion and deletion (InDel) markers and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers, showing genetically alteration. The external color and internal quality of the early maturing mutant fruit reached normal ripeness at 190 d after flowering, with soluble solids, titratable acidity, and sugar-to-acid ratio of 14.53° Brix, 0.46% and 31.59, respectively. The mutant exhibited low acidity, early acid reduction, high sugar-to-acid ratio, and matured 15 days earlier than the control. Expression analysis of genes related to sucrose and citric acid synthesis, degradation, and transport revealed that the synthesis of sucrose in the early maturing mutant was higher and the transport was early, while the synthesis of citric acid was lower, and the degradation was faster and storage was less. These characteristics were aligned with the fruit quality. In conclusion, the irradiation-induced mutant underwent changes in plant traits, biological characteristics, and DNA. The mutant exhibited early acid reduction, low acidity, high sugar-to-acid ratio, and reached color maturity in early November. This study laid the foundation for further selection and registration of this mutant as new early maturing Bingtang sweet variety.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    HU Bing, CHEN Zhaoli, CHEN Tianxiao, ZHANG Ruping, ZENG Bingshan, LI Xiangyang, LU Zhaohua
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(11): 2107-2116. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.11.2107

    To investigate the effects of space mutation on the growth and physiological characteristics of four woody flowers, a new generation of manned experimental spacecraft was used to carry the seeds of Delonix regiaJacaranda mimosifoliaCallistemon speciosus, and Cassia fistula. After returning to the ground, the growth characteristics, leaf morphology, pigment content, and physiological activities of the container seedlings were determined. The results showed that after space mutation the survival rate of D. regia increased by 6.92 percentage points, whereas that of J. mimosifolia and C. speciosus decreased by 8.12 and 10.66 percentage points, respectively, and the survival rate of C. fistula had no significant change. The growth characteristics of D. regia and C. fistula seedlings, such as plant height, ground diameter, leaf number, and leaf (axis) area were decreased by 25.74% and 45.15%, 11.14% and 19.51%, 9.13% and 31.60%, 33.62% and 32.26%, respectively. The plant height, ground diameter, leaf number, and leaf length of C. speciosus seedlings andtheaxis length and axis area of J. mimosifolia seedlings were increased by 64.93%, 37.09%, 118.25%, 18.78%, 26.49%, and 37.29%, respectively. The soluble sugar content of D. regiaJ. mimosifolia, and C. speciosus seedlings leaves increased by 36.46%, 16.77%, and 7.23%, respectively. The soluble sugar content and PDHA activity of C. fistula seedling leaves were decreased by 8.59% and 39.83%, respectively. Combined the results of correlation analysis, it was deduced that space mutation inhibited the growth and leaf morphological characteristics of D. regia and C. fistula seedlings, causing negative variation. While space mutation caused positive variations in the growth and leaf shape characteristics of C. speciosus seedlings and the leaf shape characteristics of J. mimosifolia seedlings. It had no significant effect on the pigment content of the four woody flower seedlings. The impacts of space mutation on the physiologically active substances in the leaves of D. regia,J. mimosifolia, and C. speciosus seedlings were more significant than that on C. fistula. These results indicate that space mutation had an vital effect on the growth and development of four woody flower seedlings. The impacts of space mutation varied with the different characteristics of the tree species. It is an effective way to improve the germplasm of woody flowers.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    XU Wantao, QIN Xin, CHEN Haimin, LUO Qijun
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(12): 2327-2333. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.12.2327

    To establish an appropriate method for screening free-living conchocelis mutants of Neoporphyra haitanensis, the conchocelis were exposed to 60Co-γ-ray irradiation. Subsequently, the irradiated conchocelis were separately cultured in seawater and on scallop shells to observe the mutation rate of the conchocelis. The results indicated that, after exposure to γ-ray irradiation, conchocelis retained the ability to penetrate scallop shells, and showed rich color mutations. The highest mutation rate was observed at a radiation dose of 1 000 Gy, with the mutation rates of free-living conchocelis being consistently lower than those of shell-borne conchocelis under different radiation intensities. Furthermore, to investigate the optimal growth temperature and culture medium for mutants, pink and green mutants induced by 60Co-γ-ray radiation were cultured on scallop shells, agar medium, and in seawater. Four temperature gradients (14, 17, 20, 23 ℃) were set, and the changes in the length, width, and branching of mutant conchocelis cells were observed. The results revealed that the pink and green mutants exhibited relatively stable mutation and the growths were optimum when grown at a temperature of 23 ℃ on scallop shell substrates. In the case of the pink mutant, the conchoceli had a length of 190.35 μm, a width of 12.23 μm, and branches numbers of 10.00. The growth rates for width and branching numbers were approximately 19.43% and 28.21%, respectively. For the green mutant, the conchoceli’s length, width, and branching numbers were 115.89 μm, 11.26 μm, and 3.80, respectively, with a width growth rate of approximately 9.96%. Hence, the results provided a new method for screening free-living conchocelis mutants of N. haitanensis, and could be beneficial for exploring the optimal cultivation temperature and substrates for the growth and development of mutants.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    ZENG Jianlin, LYU Jianshu, DUAN Hongwei, YANG Shuai, ZHANG Rong, ZHANG Yong, HU Junjie
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(9): 1775-1781. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.09.1775

    Abnormal metabolism and inflammation of ruminants such as sheep can cause the risk of ectopic lipopolysaccharides (LPS) which then induce inflammation in other parts of the collective, but the effect of LPS on claudin-1 and occludin, the key proteins of the oviduct epithelial barrier in sheep, is unclear. In this study, adult sheep fallopian tubes were collected and the primary oviduct epithelial cells were cultured in vitro, Hematoxylin-Eosin staining, Immunofluorescence, and Western blotting, and real-time PCR were used to elucidate the effect of LPS on the oviduct epithelium Claudin-1 and Occludin in sheep. The results showed that Claudin-1 and Occludin were expressed in the umbrella, ampulla and isthmus epithelium of the fallopian tubes of sheep, the Claudin-1 and Occludin protein in the umbrella is significantly higher than that in the ampulla and isthmus. With induction of primary ampulla epithelial cells by LPS at concentrations of 0 ng·mL-1, 10 ng·mL-1, 50 ng·mL-1, and 100 ng·mL-1, LPS was found to promote mRNA expression of TLR4, NFκB, and TNFα, and affect the protein levels of Claudin-1 and Occludin. It was shown that low concentrations of LPS could induce oviduct inflammatory response in a short time and lead to disordered expression of Claudin-1 and Occludin in epithelial cells. It was suggested that LPS translocation caused by abnormal rumen metabolism and inflammation in ruminants may induce oviduct inflammatory response, result in oviduct epithelial barrier damage and physiological dysfunction, which seriously affected sheep economy value. It provides a theoretical basis for the study of systemic inflammation caused by LPS translocation during abnormal rumen metabolism and inflammatory diseases in ruminants.

  • Food Irradiation·Food Science
    CHEN Wenhui, WANG Huawei, LI Jianxun, TAN Haiguang, LI Qianqian, YANG Shupeng, DU Liping, LI Yi
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(9): 1823-1832. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.09.1823

    In order to establish an analytical method for simultaneous detection of multiple pesticide residues in tea samples, the hydrophilic deep eutectic solvent (HP-DES) was used as the extractant of the dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) to extract and enrich pesticides in tea samples, and pesticide residues were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). The results showed that impurities in the tea samples could be effectively removed and the target substances were enriched after HP-DES extraction, vortex and centrifugation. The calibration curves of 65 pesticide residues had good linearity in the range of 1~500 ng·mL-1, the correlation coefficient (r2) was larger than 0.996, and the limits of quantification (LOQ) ranged from 0.12 to 9.76 μg·kg-1. In addition, the average recoveries were in the range of 64.44% to 110.15% at three spiked levels (10 μg·kg-1, 50 μg·kg-1 and 100 μg·kg-1) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was lower than 15%. It is a fast, simple, green, low cost method with good performance, which provides technical support for the detection of pesticide residues in tea matrix.

  • Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology
    ZHANG Xinxin, YU Peng, PAN Shuangxi, ZHAO Xueping, DONG Lili, DONG Jingao, ZHANG Lihui, MA Shujie
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(7): 1480-1488. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.07.1480

    In order to reduce the usage of herbicides in corn fields and improve the control effect of herbicides, formulation optimization and field efficacy of coconut oil tank mix adjuvant, which has been reported to be synergistic on herbicides in our previous study, were studied. Results showed that the optimum formula of the additives was obtained with n-hexanol as the solvent and 1.40∶3.60 as the compound emulsifier Span-80 versus Tween-80. In the greenhouse test, the synergistic ratios of coconut oil tank adjuvant to nicosulfuron and mesotrione could be increased by 11.24-49.35 percentage points, and those to mixture of nicosulfuron?and atrazine and mixture of mesotrione and atrazine could be increased by 14.71-31.25 percentage points, and the weeds control effect of adding adjuvant after the reduction of herbicide is equivalent to that of the constant amount without adjuvant. In the mixed treatment of oxaflutole and atrazine, the synergistic effect of the coconut oil tank mix adjuvant was 2.33-6.99 percentage points higher than that of the ethyl and methyl ester vegetable oil adjuvants. The field test results showed that the synergistic ratio of coconut oil tank mix adjuvants to post-emergence herbicides such as mixture of nicosulfuron?and?atrazine, mixture of mesotrione and atrazine, was 8.46%-13.57%. It was indicated that the control effect of herbicides at a reduction dosage after adding tank adjuvant was better than of herbicides at the recommended dose without adjuvant. In conclusion, the coconut oil tank mix adjuvant could reduce the herbicide dosage and herbicide cost, and provide a theoretical basis for the development of new pesticide additive products.

  • Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology
    XIE Weiqing, GUO Huachun, FANG Yanjie, XU Yinping, SHE Yongxin, LYU Tai, LI Fangdi, WANG Peng
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(8): 1668-1680. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.08.1668

    To determine influence of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium fertilizers and fertilization indexes in the main potato producing areas under dry weather, 3-year fertilizer experiment was conducted to clarify soil basic nutrient status, correction coefficient, nutrient utilization rate and other parameters, and to explore the abundance and deficiency indexes of soil nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) nutrients, relative yield and recommended fertilizer application amount. The correction coefficient of soil alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and soil available nutrient, the function equation of recommended fertilizer amount and the effect model of N, P and K fertilizer were established to study the effect of fertilizer combined application on potato yield. Results showed that the soil nutrients were low nitrogen, medium phosphorus, high potassium, low organic matter and slightly alkaline. There was a significant power exponential negative correlation between the correction coefficient of soil available nutrient and the contents of alkali-hydrolyzed nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium. The average contribution rate of soil fertility in the experimental area was 54.39%; the relative yields by N, P and K were 77.64%, 87.57% and 84.22%, and the yield increased by N, P and K were 30.74%, 16.68% and 23.08%, respectively. The nutrient absorption and utilization rates of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium were 32.58%, 16.32% and 45.40%, respectively. The correction coefficients of available nutrients in soil were nitrogen 0.56, phosphorus 0.48 and potassium 0.35. The amount of nutrients absorbed by100 kg tuber was N 0.4 kg, P2O 0.15 kg and K2O 0.9 kg, respectively. Under the experimental conditions, the single factor and interaction effect of increased application of N, P and K on potato yield were firstly increased and then decreased. The highest yield combination of combined application of N, P and K was N2P2K2。The maximum yield was 24 860.32 kg·hm-2, the fertilizer amount N∶P2O5∶K2O=1∶0.97∶0.92 (N: 165 kg·hm-2), and fertilization profit of 34 472 yuan·hm-2; The optimal economic yield was 24 774 kg·hm-2, the fertilizer amount N∶P2O5∶K2O=1∶1.04∶0.79 (N: 154 kg·hm-2), and the fertilizer profit was 34 603 yuan·hm-2. The findings provided scientific basis and technical reference for balanced fertilization in potato production in the dry area.

  • Food Irradiation·Food Science
    XIAO Huan, CAO Hong, CHEN Shiqiang, GAO Meixu, WANG Xinghai, LIU Zhiping, LIU Jianfeng
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(7): 1428-1434. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.07.1428

    With the requirement of reducing costs and improving efficiency during industrialization of the Business-end kitchen, and the changes of Custom-end lifestyle, the prefabricated food markets have been growing rapidly. The prefabricated food meets the customer needs for fresh food, healthy eating habits and new retail models. The ready-to-eat foods, one of the prefabricated food which already have sterilization procedure during preparation, occasionally detected the excessive level results of microorganisms and foodborne pathogenic bacteria in market spot check, which has great safety risks for consumers. Food irradiation technology is a non-thermal sterilization new methods, gradually accepted by the Chinese food market. Combined with the HACCP food management system and fence factors, irradiation can be the last and most effective barrier in controlling the spread of pathogenic microorganisms. In the current review, the integration of irradiation technology on prefabricated food processing technology was studied, and the functional relationship between irradiation sterilization and other food preservation methods was explored. The review could provide references for irradiation enterprises and prefabricated food production enterprises in terms of economic benefits and food safety.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    LI Xiuli, CHEN Fazhi, YANG Yongxue, CHEN Zhiwei, CHEN Zhen, ZHAI Jinghua, LIU Zhong, JI Xiaomei
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(9): 1701-1709. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.09.1701

    In order to understand the mutagenic effect of heavy ion radiation on peony, the seeds of Fengdan peony were irradiated by 12C6+ heavy ion beams under doses of 0, 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 120, 150, 200, 300 Gy, respectively, the phenotype of peony after irradiation were analyzed, and the changes of chemical compounds, structures and contents in the leaves of peony seedlings under different radiation doses were studied by Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results showed that heavy ion radiation could significantly inhibit the emergence rate, and the half-lethal dose was between 10 and 20 Gy. 80-120 Gy can significantly inhibit plant height, reduce leaf length and width, and induce leaf deformation. 10-20 Gy can promote the formation of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin, and promote the formation of protein secondary structure α-helix and β-sheet. 20-150 Gy can inhibit the synthesis of esters, lignin, amino II and amino A, promote protein methylation, glycoprotein mutation, lipid oxidation and degradation, inhibit the formation of β-sheets linked to pectin, and promote the formation of protein secondary structures such as β-sheet, random coils, α-helices, loops and turns. Through principal component, loading diagram and cluster analysis, it was found that the radiation doses of 10, 20, 40 and 60 Gy could significantly change the chemical compositions in leaves of Fengdan peony, which were clustered into one category; when the radiation dose was 200 Gy, the chemical substances in the leaves of peony showed great differences, which could be clustered into one group; there was no significant difference between the other dose groups and the control group, which were clustered into one category. The results of this study will provide an appropriate mutagenic dose range (10-20 Gy) and theoretical basis for 12C6+ heavy ion radiation breeding of peony seeds.

  • Induced Mutations for Plant Breeding·Agricultural Biotechnology
    CHEN Ping, HE Zhenfu, WANG Fei, XIE Jianpeng, HE Honghong
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(6): 1158-1165. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.06.1158

    To investigate the expression of Collagen1 and Collagen3 in pulmonary fibrosis tissue of yak and clarify the roles of Collagen1 and Collagen3 in pulmonary fibrosis process of yak. The normal and fibrosis lung tissue of yak were collected and divided into control group and experimental group. HE staining, Masson staining and transmission electron microscope were used to observe the pathological changes of lung ultrastructure and fibrosis state; qRT-PCR, Western-blot, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence staining were used to detect the expression of Collagen1 and Collagen3 genes and proteins in groups. The results showed that the yak lung tissue structure of the control group was intact, the alveolar septum was normal and there was no inflammatory exudate in bronchial lumen and alveolar cavity. while in experimental group, lung tissue showed necrosis, nuclear fragmentation and dissolution, severe hemorrhage and extensive pulmonary edema. The expression of Collagen1 in experimental group is higher, while the expression of Collagen3 is lower than that in control group. In experimental group, Collagen1 and Collagen3 proteins were proliferated massively and distributed in alveolar septum extensively. The other distributions were basically the same as control group but stronger than in control group. In conclusion, Collagen1 and Collagen3 play important roles in yak pulmonary fibrosis.

  • Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology and Environment·Physiology
    TANG Na, ZHANG Yingquan, MIAO Zisheng, QIN Shiwei, LI Zhanghui, DONG Ziyan, ZHANG Bo
    Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences. 2023, 37(6): 1263-1269. https://doi.org/10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.06.1263

    Benefit of strong-gluten variety wheat and non-strong-gluten variety wheat in Yanjin County of Henan province is compared and analyzed with their quality in quantitative terms, so as to provide reference for setting policies to enhance farmers' planting initiative and the yield of strong-gluten variety wheat. 257 copies of production cost of strong-gluten variety wheat and non-strong-gluten variety wheat in Yanjin County were collected, which were processed through distribution and pair analysis. Besides, the wheat samples of Yanjin County harvested in summer of 2019—2021 were collected, whose quality was measured and evaluated, so as to run a comprehensive analysis on the benefit of strong-gluten variety wheat and non-strong-gluten variety wheat in Yanjin County. During 2019—2021, the protein content and stability time of strong-gluten variety wheat were remarkably higher than those of non-strong-gluten variety wheat by 0.8 percentage point and 11.7 min, respectively (P<0.01). The standard-reaching percent of high-quality strong-gluten wheat were 30.77% and 4.30%, respectively. The seed cost per mu of strong-gluten variety wheat in Yanjin County is significantly higher than that of non-strong-gluten variety wheat by 14 RMB yuan, and there is no significant difference between the two total costs. The yield per mu of strong-gluten variety wheat was significantly lower than that of non-strong-gluten variety by 25 kg, but the price per kg was significantly higher than that of non-strong-gluten variety wheat by 0.28 yuan, and the sales revenue per mu was significantly higher than that of non-strong-gluten variety wheat by 94 yuan. It is concluded that there is no significant difference between the total production cost of strong-gluten variety wheat and non-strong-gluten variety wheat in Yanjin County, while the protein content, dough stability time and sales revenue per mu of strong-gluten variety wheat are much higher than those of non-strong-gluten variety wheat according to the collected data. The price per kg of strong-gluten variety wheat would increase 0.011 yuan if the standard-reaching percent of high-quality wheat of strong-gluten variety wheat increased 1 percentage point. Besides, the hectares of strong-gluten variety wheat would go 1 percentage point higher if the sales revenue per mu of strong-gluten variety wheat went 3 yuan higher than that of non-strong-gluten variety wheat. The results are contribute to formulating policy measures to improve the yield of strong gluten wheat varieties and farmers planting initiative.