The Chinese expression of the terminology “biochar” has created arguments in academic world for many years. This paper looks insight into the concept of biochar and analyzes the confusion nomenclature phenomena, based on the basic method of logistics on concept, phrases, definition and classification. By clarifying the logic problems on the definition and classification of biochar, this work established good practice for the in-depth understanding of biochar terminology, and promoting the spread of the related scientific knowledge and the application of the technological achievements.
In order to screen superior table grape cultivars that are suitable for cultivation in Weinan area of Shaanxi Province and optimize the planting structure of table grape cultivars, ten table grape cultivars including Xinyu, Flame Seedless, Zicui Seedless, Zaoheibao, Summer Black, Zitian Seedless, Hutai No.8, Jumeigui, Shine Muscat, Gold Finger were introduced for cultivation. Field observation and laboratory detection were used in the introduction experiment. The phenological phase and botany properties of the experimental cultivars were observed and recorded, physical and chemical compositions of berries were measured and sensory quality of berries was evaluated. Finally, the berry quality was evaluated comprehensively and ranked with the method of principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that there were differences among the cultivars in the phenological phase, the botany properties, the physical and chemical compositions and the sensory scores under the conditions of simple rain shelter in Weinan area. The PCA analysis indicated that Xinyu and Hutai No.8 showed better quality, and the quality of Zaoheibao, Shine Muscat, Zitian Seedless were general, but the other cultivars were poor. Xinyu and Hutai No.8 were suggested to be the prior, and the cultivars of Zaoheibao, Shine Muscat and Zitian Seedless could be scaled up moderately. However, the other cultivars were not recommended to plant in large-scale in this area or the cultivation management for planting them had been improved. The results could provide some references for introduction of superior cultivars and planting structure optimization of table grape cultivars in Weinan area.
In order to investigate the influences of combined application of sheep manure-derived organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) growth and soil fertility, we used flue-cured tobacco variety Zhongyan101 as test materials and conducted a pot experiment to study the effects of different application ratios of sheep manure and chemical fertilizer(T0: 100% inorganic fertilizer N; T20: 20% sheep manure N+80% inorganic fertilizer N; T40: 40% sheep manure N+60% inorganic fertilizer N; T60: 60% sheep manure N+40% inorganic fertilizer N; T80: 80% sheep manure N+20% inorganic fertilizer N; T100: 100% sheep manure N) on tobacco agronomic characters, root morphological parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, soil nutrients and soil enzyme activities under equal amount of fertilizer application, and non-fertilizer application was set as a control (CK). The results showed that T0 and T20 treatments had higher soil available nutrients and could promote tobacco growth at 30 days after transplanting, but the contents of soil available nutrient and the growth potential of tobacco decreased significantly at 60 days after transplanting, and the content of soil organic matter and the activity of soil sucrase were also lower than that of other treatments at 60 days after transplanting. T80 and T100 treatments had higher soil organic matter content, but the activities of soil protease and urease, the contents of soil available nutrients and the growth of tobacco were lower than that of other treatments at 30 days after transplanting. T40 and T60 treatments had slightly lower soil available nutrients than that of T0 treatment at 30 days after transplanting, but the activities of soil sucrase, protease and urease, as well as the contents of soil available nutrient significantly increased at 60 days after transplanting, and could ensure tobacco growth at both 30 days and 60 days after transplanting. Compared with T0 treatment, T40 and T60 treatments increased the maximum leaf area by 11.9% and 10.7%, the shoot dry weight by 11.9% and 9.6%, the root dry weight by 12.1% and 26.8%, and the net photosynthetic rate by 17.6% and 16.2%, respectively, at 60 days of after transplanting. In general, the 40% and 60% sheep manure N application was more conductive to the growth of tobacco and the maintenance of soil fertility. This study provided a theoretical basis for the scientific application of sheep manure-derived organic fertilizer in tobacco-growing area of Luoyang.
In order to investigate the in?uence of salt on the quality of chicken soup and volatile flavor substances, the hybrid F1 of Wuding chicken and Digao chicken was used as the research object. The chicken soup was stewed with material-water a ratio of 1:3 for 2 h. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to detect the effects of different salt additions on volatile flavors in chicken soup. The results showed that the flavor component of chicken soup increased with the increase of salt addition. Among them, the volatile flavor substances with relative high content in chicken soup were mainly aldehydes and alcohols. The aldehydes were mainly heptaldehyde, hexanal, trans-2-furaldehyde, furfural, 2-heptenal, N-octanal, trans-2-nonenal and alcohols were mainly n-octanol and heptanol. The results of sensory evaluation showed that when the amount of salt addition was 2.0%, the sensory score of chicken soup was the highest, and the composition of volatile flavor substances was rich. Therefore, when the ratio of material to water was 1:3, stewed for 2 h, and the amount of salt addition was 2.0%, the quality and consumption of chicken soup was the best. The results would provide research methods and scientific basis for the research and quality of volatile components of chicken soup products.
Nitrate is the major forms of nitrogen that plants absorb from the soil, and its uptake and utilization is a highly coordinated and complex process. For the sake of survive in various environmental conditions, plants have evolved suitable nitrate uptake and utilization mechanisms to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions. There are various types of nitrate receptors in plant roots, which can sense different concentrations of external nitrate. The low- or high-affinity nitrate uptake system was activated to absorb nitrate from the environment according to the levels of external nitrate. Once nitrate is taken up into root cells, most of it is transported to shoots for assimilation, and synthesizes macromolecular substances to optimize plant growth. When the nitrate supply is too much for use immediately, the plant can store the excess nitrate into vacuoles and mediate it efflux from vacuoles to the cytosol for assimilation when needed. During plant growth and development, nitrate in the old and mature leaves can be redistributed into developing tissues to promote their growth. Many genes related to nitrate absorption, transportation, storage, assimilation and signaling regulation are activated orderly and work coordinately to absorb and utilize nitrate efficiently. This review summarizes the NRT1 and NRT2 nitrate uptake-related genes and their functions, as well as related transcription factors involved in primary nitrate response and small signal peptides in nitrate signaling transduction and exchange among different tissues. In order to further understand the mechanisms of plant uptake and utilize nitrate, and therefore provides new ideas in increasing nitrogen-use efficiency of crop by breeding and cultivation techniques.