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Physiological and Molecular Mechanisms of Salt Stress Tolerance in Rice
HUANG Jie, BAI Zhigang, ZHONG Chu, JIN Qianyu, ZHU Lianfeng, CAO Xiaochuang, ZHU Chunquan, ZHANG Junhua
2020, 34 (6): 1359-1367. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.06.1359
Abstract601)   HTML26)    PDF (2048KB)(1070)      
Soil salinization caused by soil sodium accumulation is becoming more and more serious,which is one of the important factors restricting rice yield and quality. Sodium ion is the main ion causing salt stress injury in rice. Study on the mechanisms of sodium ion uptake and transport in rice plants and the physiological and molecular mechanisms of rice in response to salt stress is very helpful to the selection and breeding of salt-resistant varieties and to the comprehensive management and utilization of saline-alkali land. This paper summarized the induction of salt signals and the characteristics of salt absorption and transport in rice, analyzed the effects of salt on rice morphology growth and development, and discussed the physiological mechanism of osmotic regulation, nutrient regulation, antioxidant system regulation and hormone regulation induced by rice in order to alleviate salt damage. The molecular regulation mechanisms of ion balance, membrane protection system and photosynthetic system in rice through differential expression of stress-resistant proteins and stress expression of salt-tolerant related genes are also discussed in present study. Besides, this paper proposed the exogenous application methods to improve salt tolerance of rice as well as the esearch prospects of this field.
Biochar Concept Connotation and Phrases Discrimination
SHENG Kuichuan, YANG Shengmao
2022, 36 (2): 481-487. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0481
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The Chinese expression of the terminology “biochar” has created arguments in academic world for many years. This paper looks insight into the concept of biochar and analyzes the confusion nomenclature phenomena, based on the basic method of logistics on concept, phrases, definition and classification. By clarifying the logic problems on the definition and classification of biochar, this work established good practice for the in-depth understanding of biochar terminology, and promoting the spread of the related scientific knowledge and the application of the technological achievements.

Evaluation of the Introduction Performance of Ten Table Grape Cultivars in Weinan Area of Shaanxi Province
LI Yashan, LI Yumeng, REN Yizhao, LIU Xu, WANG Lujun, WANG Jinfeng, CUI Ping, WANG Yanjun
2021, 35 (12): 2756-2765. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.12.2756
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In order to screen superior table grape cultivars that are suitable for cultivation in Weinan area of Shaanxi Province and optimize the planting structure of table grape cultivars, ten table grape cultivars including Xinyu, Flame Seedless, Zicui Seedless, Zaoheibao, Summer Black, Zitian Seedless, Hutai No.8, Jumeigui, Shine Muscat, Gold Finger were introduced for cultivation. Field observation and laboratory detection were used in the introduction experiment. The phenological phase and botany properties of the experimental cultivars were observed and recorded, physical and chemical compositions of berries were measured and sensory quality of berries was evaluated. Finally, the berry quality was evaluated comprehensively and ranked with the method of principal component analysis (PCA). The results showed that there were differences among the cultivars in the phenological phase, the botany properties, the physical and chemical compositions and the sensory scores under the conditions of simple rain shelter in Weinan area. The PCA analysis indicated that Xinyu and Hutai No.8 showed better quality, and the quality of Zaoheibao, Shine Muscat, Zitian Seedless were general, but the other cultivars were poor. Xinyu and Hutai No.8 were suggested to be the prior, and the cultivars of Zaoheibao, Shine Muscat and Zitian Seedless could be scaled up moderately. However, the other cultivars were not recommended to plant in large-scale in this area or the cultivation management for planting them had been improved. The results could provide some references for introduction of superior cultivars and planting structure optimization of table grape cultivars in Weinan area.

Evaluation of Soil Nutrient Content and Its Distribution of Cultivated Land in South of Xinjiang: Taking Aksu Prefecture as an Example
TIAN Liwen, QI Yongchun, DAI Lu, CUI Jianping, GUO Rensong, XU Haijiang, LIN Tao, ZHANG Na
2020, 34 (1): 214-223. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.01.0214
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To explore the soil nutrient content and distribution characteristics of cultivated land in south Xinjiang after years of cultivating since the second national land survey in 1982, the Aksu prefecture of xinjiang cotton producing area with typical natural ecological conditions in southern Xinjiang was taken as a representative in our research. Field investigation and laboratory analysis were used to measure the soil major element content of organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and microelement content of available copper, iron, zinc, manganese, then the determination results were analyzed by combining with relevant indices of soil nutrient grading in Xinjiang. The results showed that compared with 1982, soil nutrient content in the cultivated land was greatly improved. The average organic matter content of the whole region was 13.56 g·kg -1; total nitrogen alkaline hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium were 680, 62.30, 13.90 and 145.00 mg·kg -1, respectively. Among them, the organic matter content in Aksu Prefecture was the same as that of in 1982, while the available potassium content was decreased at rate of 2.20 mg·kg -1 annually , and the content of available nitrogen and available phosphorus were higher 74.50% and 385.86% than that of in 1982, respectively. The overall result was as follows: that the content of phosphorus and potassium was abundant, the organic matter was in the middle level, except for the effective manganese content in the lower-middle level; the content of effective copper, available iron and zinc were in different degree of abundant state, and the content of nitrogen was low. In summary, it was recommended to strengthen the implementation of the balanced fertilization program for the current nutrient content levels and trends of soil, and to improve the content of soluble fertilizers such as nitrogen through reasonable irrigation, and prevent soil salinization. Thus, this research provided a theoretical basis for the future agricultural production of soil fertility and scientific fertilization in Aksu prefecture.
Whole Genome Identification and Analysis of GRFs Gene Family in Brachypodium distachyon
MA Chao, SONG Peng, SHANG Shenshen, YANG Xiaxia, YANG Jinhua, HAN Qunwei, LI Jimin, FENG Yalan
2020, 34 (6): 1152-1162. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.06.1152
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Growth-regulating factors play important roles in plant growth and development as well as plant tolerance to abiotic stress. To investigate the characteristics of GRFs gene family and their evolutionary relationship, GRFs gene family in Brachypodium distachyon were identified and analyzed using bioinformatics method. The results showed that Brachypodium distachyon contained 12 GRF genes. The length of protein sequence ranged letween 238 and 577 aa. The sequence alignment analysis showed that GRF genes have two conserved domains: QLQ and WRC, and a wide range of conservative motif. All the GRF genes were found to be distributed unevenly in the five chromosomes with the maximum in bd03. Based on phylogenetic relationship in Brachypodium distachyon, four pairs of orthologous genes were revealed. RT-qPCR analysis found that expression level of all the GRF genes were higher in actively growing tissues than in senescent tissue and root, and most GRF genes were induced by exogenous hormones, especially GA 3, suggesting that most of GRF genes were involed in the meristem function and organ formation. The results of this study could provide a theoretical foundation for the protein function analysis of the GRFs family in Brachypodium distachyon.
Effects of Selenium and Sulfur on Physiology and Metabolism of Sulforaphane of Broccoli Sprouts Under High Temperature Stress
HAN Yu, ZHU Zhenyu, SHEN Minxi, CHENG Yuwei, YIN Yongqi, FANG Weiming
2020, 34 (6): 1350-1358. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.06.1350
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In order to explore the effects of selenium-sulfur interaction on the physiology and sulforaphane metabolism of broccoli sprouts under high temperature stress, broccoli seeds were sprayed with ZnSO 4 or Na 2SeO 3 alone or combined with ZnSO 4 or Na 2SeO 3 or both under high temperature stress. The main physiological and biochemical indexes of broccoli sprouts during germination were analyzed and the changes of gene expression of key enzymes in sulforaphane metabolism were analyzed by fluorescence quantitative PCR. The results showed that the application of Na 2SeO 3 alone could significantly increase the sprouts length and the fresh weight per plant ( P<0.05), and effectively alleviate the inhibition of high temperature and ZnSO 4 on the growth and development of broccoli sprouts. During germination, compared with spraying ZnSO 4 alone, the selenium content, total antioxidant capacity, glucosinolates content, mesonase activity, isothiocyanate content and sulforaphane content of broccoli sprouts sprayed with ZnSO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 after high temperature were significantly increased ( P<0.05). The content of sulforaphane was 39% higher than that of spraying ZnSO 4 alone. The expressions of MYB28, UGT74 B1 and ST5b in sprouts treated with high temperature combined with ZnSO 4 and Na 2SeO 3 for 4 days were significantly up-regulated compared with the control, while BoHMT1 was significantly down-regulated ( P<0.05). To sum up, broccoli sprouts treated with high temperature combined with selenium and sulfur is an effective way to enrich sulforaphane. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis and technical support for the production of functional sprouts rich in sulforaphane.
Effects of Combined Application of Sheep Manure-Derived Organic Fertilizer and Chemical Fertilizer on Tobacco Growth and Soil Fertility
MA Yilin, WU Guanghai, SHEN Hongtao, WANG Xinzhong, ZHAO Shimin, MA Junhong, WANG Lihua, LIU Ling
2021, 35 (10): 2423-2430. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.10.2423
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In order to investigate the influences of combined application of sheep manure-derived organic fertilizer and chemical fertilizer on tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) growth and soil fertility, we used flue-cured tobacco variety Zhongyan101 as test materials and conducted a pot experiment to study the effects of different application ratios of sheep manure and chemical fertilizer(T0: 100% inorganic fertilizer N; T20: 20% sheep manure N+80% inorganic fertilizer N; T40: 40% sheep manure N+60% inorganic fertilizer N; T60: 60% sheep manure N+40% inorganic fertilizer N; T80: 80% sheep manure N+20% inorganic fertilizer N; T100: 100% sheep manure N) on tobacco agronomic characters, root morphological parameters, photosynthetic characteristics, soil nutrients and soil enzyme activities under equal amount of fertilizer application, and non-fertilizer application was set as a control (CK). The results showed that T0 and T20 treatments had higher soil available nutrients and could promote tobacco growth at 30 days after transplanting, but the contents of soil available nutrient and the growth potential of tobacco decreased significantly at 60 days after transplanting, and the content of soil organic matter and the activity of soil sucrase were also lower than that of other treatments at 60 days after transplanting. T80 and T100 treatments had higher soil organic matter content, but the activities of soil protease and urease, the contents of soil available nutrients and the growth of tobacco were lower than that of other treatments at 30 days after transplanting. T40 and T60 treatments had slightly lower soil available nutrients than that of T0 treatment at 30 days after transplanting, but the activities of soil sucrase, protease and urease, as well as the contents of soil available nutrient significantly increased at 60 days after transplanting, and could ensure tobacco growth at both 30 days and 60 days after transplanting. Compared with T0 treatment, T40 and T60 treatments increased the maximum leaf area by 11.9% and 10.7%, the shoot dry weight by 11.9% and 9.6%, the root dry weight by 12.1% and 26.8%, and the net photosynthetic rate by 17.6% and 16.2%, respectively, at 60 days of after transplanting. In general, the 40% and 60% sheep manure N application was more conductive to the growth of tobacco and the maintenance of soil fertility. This study provided a theoretical basis for the scientific application of sheep manure-derived organic fertilizer in tobacco-growing area of Luoyang.

Cloning and Expression Analysis of the MYB Transcription Factor RcWER-like in Rosa chinensis
BAO Ying, LI Zeqing, WEI Linyan, CHEN Chao
2020, 34 (6): 1144-1151. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.06.1144
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MYB transcription factors play an important regulation role in the salt stress-responsive of plant. In order to characterize the biological function of a MYB transcription factor, RcWER-like, its'expression profile in diverse tissues under salt, hormone, and salt combined with hormore treatment were analyzed by real-time PCR. In this study, a MYB transcription factor gene of rose, RcWER-like was cloned from R. chinensis Old Blush based on the transcriptome and genome data. Bioinformatic analysis showed that the total length of RcWER-like gene was 882 bp, and the ORF of RcWER-like was 669 bp, which encode 223 amino acids. Multi-alignment of RcWER-like with other MYB type proteins revealed that RcWER-like had two conserved domains in the N-terminal. Phylogenic tree analysis showed that RcWER-like was clustered with PpWER-like in Prunus persica, PmWER-like in Prunus mume and MdWER-like in Malus domestica, and belonged to the R2R3-MYB type transcription factor. Real-time PCR results showed that the expression level of RcWER-like was significantly increased at 24 h under salt stress, and the SA and MeJA treatments could also induce the expression of RcWER-like. In addition, under salt stress, RcWER-like was significantly up-regulated by SA and MeJA, which was higher than that under salt stress and exogenous hormone treatment. Meanwhile, there were significant differences in the expression patterns of RcWER-like in different tissues at different time points under the treatment of salt and hormone. These evidences implied that the R2R3-MYB transcription factor RcWER-like in Rosa chinensis Old Blush could response to SA and MeJA, and might play an important role in response to salt stress. The results will provide candidate gene resources and theoretical basis for salt tolerance molecular breeding of rose.
Research Progress on Functional Regulation of Flap Endonuclease 1 by Programmed Post-Translational Modification
JIA Lanlan, WANG Yiyi, HUA Yuejin, XU Hong
2020, 34 (6): 1205-1212. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.06.1205
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The flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is a member of the structure-specific 5' nuclease superfamily, known for participating in Okazaki fragment maturation, DNA recombination, apoptotic DNA fragmentation and long-fragment base excision repair (LP-BER). FEN1 plays its role in various metabolic pathways to maintain genome stability in different species. Abnormal expression of FEN1 in vivo can lead to disorders in many biological processes, such as increased mutation rate of autoimmune deficiency, unstable microsatellite sequence, DNA degradation and so on, resulting in serious damage to the organisms. Therefore, the expression of FEN1 in vivo must be regulated strictly, accurately and promptly. Recent studies have shown that post-translational modification of FEN1 plays an important role in regulating its activity, cellular localization and functional stability. In this paper, the research progress on the regulation of FEN1 post-translational modification was summarized, showing the regulation and influence of post-translational modification of FEN1 on its function, providing a basis for further study on the procedural regulation of FEN1.
CRISPR/Cas9-Mediated Mutagenesis of SlMAPK6 in Tomato Affect Plant Morphology
YUE Ningbo, LI Yunzhou, WANG Yong, GAO Bin, WU Lang, XU Wen, YAN Jianmin, QIN Lei
2020, 34 (9): 1881-1888. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.09.1881
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MAPK cascade signals are involved in the regulation of a variety of stresses, growth and development, anthocyanin synthesis pathways in plants. In order to know the function of SlMAPK6 in tomato, three target sites were designed for fixed-point editing SlMAPK6 by using CRISPR/Cas9, and mutant CRISPR-3 and CRISPR-7 were obtained The results of PCR and sequencing showed that the SlMAPK6 knockout vector was successfully constructed. Through kanamycin gene screening, target site amplification, sequencing and off-target effect analysis of T 1 plants, the dwarf tomato plants were mutated successfully and did not miss the target. Through phenotypic observation and measurement, compared with the wild type control, all the mutants showed more flourished root system and lateral branches. The results showed that SlMAPK6 played an important role in the process of tomato plant morphogenesis, which laid a foundation for further exploring the role of SlMAPK6 in tomato growth and development.
Effect of Salt on the Volatile Flavor Compounds of Chicken Soup
YANG Yucai, WANG Guiying, GU Dahai, XU Zhiqiang, FAN Jiangping, PU Yuehong, LIAO Guozhou, GE Changrong
2020, 34 (6): 1248-1256. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.06.1248
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In order to investigate the in?uence of salt on the quality of chicken soup and volatile flavor substances, the hybrid F1 of Wuding chicken and Digao chicken was used as the research object. The chicken soup was stewed with material-water a ratio of 1:3 for 2 h. Headspace solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to detect the effects of different salt additions on volatile flavors in chicken soup. The results showed that the flavor component of chicken soup increased with the increase of salt addition. Among them, the volatile flavor substances with relative high content in chicken soup were mainly aldehydes and alcohols. The aldehydes were mainly heptaldehyde, hexanal, trans-2-furaldehyde, furfural, 2-heptenal, N-octanal, trans-2-nonenal and alcohols were mainly n-octanol and heptanol. The results of sensory evaluation showed that when the amount of salt addition was 2.0%, the sensory score of chicken soup was the highest, and the composition of volatile flavor substances was rich. Therefore, when the ratio of material to water was 1:3, stewed for 2 h, and the amount of salt addition was 2.0%, the quality and consumption of chicken soup was the best. The results would provide research methods and scientific basis for the research and quality of volatile components of chicken soup products.

Biological Effect of 60Co-γ Ray on Water Lily Tubers
SHI Mingwei, PAN Hong, YAN Jianing, JIN Qijiang, WANG Yanjie, XU Yingchun
2020, 34 (10): 2125-2132. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.10.2125
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To investigate the biological effects of 60Co-γ rays on water lily, tubers of two water lily cultivars, Nymphaea Virginia and N. Almost black, were irradiated at different doses by 60Co-γ rays. Results showed that the survival rates of two water lily varieties decreased with the irradiation dose increased, and the semi-lethal doses were 24.342 Gy and 27.671 Gy, respectively. Besides, 5-10 Gy 60Co-γ radiation treatment significantly increased leaf area and number of floating leaves, while 20-40 Gy 60Co-γ radiation treatment significantly reduced leaf area and number of floating leaves. Although the flowering time of the two cultivars was delayed with the increase of irradiation dose, the whole flowering length did not change significantly. 10-40 Gy 60Co-γ irradiation significantly reduced the diameter of water lily, yet had no significant effect on the flowering rate. Irradiation treatment resulted in red-brown patches, sawtooth, shrinkage, pore, curl and yellowish leaves of two water lily varieties. The area of red-brown patches increased with the increase of irradiation dose. Irradiation treatment resulted in a general fading of black-red flower cultivar Almost black, but no variation of white flower cultivar Virginia. In addition, flower pattern variations were observed in both cultivars. The present study laid a foundation for breeding new water lily varieties with the application of radiation mutagenesis technology.
Determination of Bioactive Ingredients in Broccoli Leaves
ZHAO Dengqi, SUN Yatian, HUANG Jianying, SONG Yichao
2020, 34 (6): 1266-1271. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.06.1266
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In order to explore the specific content of bioactive ingredients in the broccoli leaves. Broccoli leaves were selected as the research material to analyze the bioactive ingredients contained. The contents of sulforaphane, total phenolics, total flavonoids, total proteins in broccoli leaves were 92.5 μg·g -1 (dry weight), 3.15 mg·g -1 (dry weight), 2.48 mg·g -1 (dry weight) and 89.38 mg·g -1 (dry weight). Ribulose-1,5-diphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) occupied most of the proteins in broccoli leaves. This study clarified the specific contents of four bioactive components in broccoli leaves, which provided some data support for the further utilization of broccoli waste.
Nitrate Uptake, Transport and Signaling Regulation Pathways
LI Chenyang, KONG Xiangqiang, DONG Hezhong
2020, 34 (5): 982-993. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.05.0982
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Nitrate is the major forms of nitrogen that plants absorb from the soil, and its uptake and utilization is a highly coordinated and complex process. For the sake of survive in various environmental conditions, plants have evolved suitable nitrate uptake and utilization mechanisms to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions. There are various types of nitrate receptors in plant roots, which can sense different concentrations of external nitrate. The low- or high-affinity nitrate uptake system was activated to absorb nitrate from the environment according to the levels of external nitrate. Once nitrate is taken up into root cells, most of it is transported to shoots for assimilation, and synthesizes macromolecular substances to optimize plant growth. When the nitrate supply is too much for use immediately, the plant can store the excess nitrate into vacuoles and mediate it efflux from vacuoles to the cytosol for assimilation when needed. During plant growth and development, nitrate in the old and mature leaves can be redistributed into developing tissues to promote their growth. Many genes related to nitrate absorption, transportation, storage, assimilation and signaling regulation are activated orderly and work coordinately to absorb and utilize nitrate efficiently. This review summarizes the NRT1 and NRT2 nitrate uptake-related genes and their functions, as well as related transcription factors involved in primary nitrate response and small signal peptides in nitrate signaling transduction and exchange among different tissues. In order to further understand the mechanisms of plant uptake and utilize nitrate, and therefore provides new ideas in increasing nitrogen-use efficiency of crop by breeding and cultivation techniques.

Application and Prospect of Biochar and Biochar-Based Fertilizer in Tobacco Agriculture
WANG Chengji, TANG Lina, HU Zhongliang, LI Yanchun, HUANG Yibin
2021, 35 (4): 997-1007. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.04.0997
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Tobacco is an important economic crop in our country. Improving the quality and value of tobacco leaf and implementing green and clean production of tobacco are the inevitable trend of green development of tobacco agriculture. It is a win-win approach to realize the resource utilization and environmental friendly development from tobacco stalk carbonization and returning to the field. Biochar has a large specific surface area, developed pore structure, abundant functional groups, stable ring structure and good adsorption properties, which give it great potential to improve continuous cropping obstacle tobacco soil and rebuild healthy microbial habitat. Biochar-based fertilizer combines the advantages of biochar and fertilizer, and has the peculiarities over its raw material. It can slowly release nutrients, maintain fertilizer efficiency for a long time, continuously improve soil environment, promote the healthy growth of tobacco, improve the quality and value of tobacco leaf, and has great potential in tobacco agriculture. This paper reviewed the effects of biochar and biochar-based fertilizer application on tobacco-planting soil physical and chemical properties, soil nutrient, greenhouse gas emissions, soil microorganism and enzyme activity, flue-cured tobacco growth and quality of tobacco leaves, tobacco soil-borne disease. The problems existing in the utilization of biochar and biochar-based fertilizer in tobaocco agriculture were analyzed objectively and then put forward the future research direction: (1) The mechanism of biochar and biochar-based fertilizer regulating the quality of tobacco-planting soil and the growth and quality of tobacco. (2) Ecological and environmental risk assessment of biochar and biochar-based fertilizer application in tobacco-planting soil. (3) Innovation in production technology and process of biochar and biochar-based fertilizer. The results can provide scientific basis for the rational application of biochar and biochar-based fertilizer in tobacco agriculture.
Research Progress in Traceability of Agricultural Products Using Stable Isotope
ZHAO Ruting, YANG Shuming, ZHAO Yan
2020, 34 (S1): 120-128. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.34.0120
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With the enhancement of consumers' demands for the quality and safety of agricultural products, the traceability research of agricultural products keeps a good development trend. Stable isotope techniques are widely used in the research of agricultural products, including geographical origin traceability, authenticity identification and so on. In terms of geographical origin traceability, beef, mutton, milk, wine, honey, aquatic products, tea and grain have been investigated widely. It is difficult and important to narrow the scope of traceability area. The combination of stable isotope ratio with multi-element, amino acid and fatty acid content is the best way to narrow the traceability area. In terms of the authenticity of agricultural products, the variety and complexity of adulteration make it difficult for consumers to distinguish the true products. The fractionation of stable isotopes in agricultural products processing has been developed and gradually deepened. In this paper, the progress of the research on stable isotopes in the origin traceability, authenticity and fractionation process of agricultural products from 2015 to 2020 was reviewed. And the combination of stable isotope with other technologies for the geographical traceability of agricultural products was described. Furthermore, its deficiencies were summarized and prospected.
Analysis of Pyramiding Effect of Sink-source Related Genes on Grain Yield in Rice
DAI Mingli, QIU Xianjin, CHEN Kai, HUANG Laijian, LU Zongqiang, WEN Naiqiang, XING Danyin, XU Jianlong
2020, 34 (6): 1129-1137. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.06.1129
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Rice yield depends on size and coordination of the sink and source-related traits. To study effect of pyramiding of different sink-source genes on yield and its related traits, near-isogenic lines of four cloned sink-source genes including NAL1 LT, GNP1 TQ, Ghd7 MH 63 and Ghd8 9311 in different genetic backgrounds were used as materials to develop F 2 populations for pyramiding different genes, and homozygous single and two-gene pyramiding individuals were selected by marker-assisted selection using their respective linkage markers for further evaluation of yield and its related traits in F 3 lines. The results showed that individuals with NAL1 LT + Ghd7 MH 63, NAL1 LT + Ghd8 9311 and Ghd7 MH 63+ Ghd8 9311 had significant yield-increased effect with 26.45%, 45.47% and 48.03% higher than their respective high-value parents, suggesting the three types of pyramiding had synergistic effect on sink-, source- and yield-related traits in their progenies. Oppositely, another three pyramiding types of NAL1 LT + GNP1 TQ, GNP1 TQ + Ghd7 MH 63 and GNP1 TQ + Ghd8 9311 had no significant effects on yield, some yield-related traits increased but other decreased or maintained the same levels as parents. For pyramiding breeding of complicated quantitative traits, we think it should firstly, study pyramiding effect of different genes on yield traits to ascertain pyramiding effectiveness among them, which will give us twofold results with half the effort in breeding. Our results will provide a theoretical basis of molecular pyramiding improvement of rice sink and source traits.
Detection Proteins Interacting With Dunaliella salina MAPK by Co-immunoprecipitation and Mass Spectrometry
YUE Jinrong, CONG Yuting, XING Zhenyu, GAO Xiangnan, WANG Mingfang, CHAI Xiaojie
2020, 34 (6): 1187-1195. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.06.1187
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In order to explore the function of mitogen-activated protein kinase (DsMAPK) in Dunaliella salina, the interacting proteins with MAPK in D.salina were screened by immunoprecipitation-mass spectrometry. The pGS-21a-MAPK plasmid was transfected into E. coli BL21 to express MAPK and prepare polyclonal antibodies. D. salina cells at logarithmic growth stage were treated with salt stress, then the total protein of D. salina was extracted and tested by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting. Using endogenous target protein as bait, total proteins of cell and MAPK’s antibody were co-incubated. The immunoprecipitation compound purified by protein A/G agarose beads were detected by mass spectrometry. The results showed that the prepared polyclonal antibody has good specificity and 165 specific differential proteins were screened out. Through GO and KEGG analysis, we found that these differentially expressed proteins are mainly involved in metabolism, genetic information transmission, signal transduction and other biological processes. Protein interaction network analysis revealed that 4 different proteins interact directly with MAPK. The results provide new information for further study on the molecular mechanism of D.salina responding to salt stress.
Effects of Electron Beam on Seed Germination and Physiological and Biochemical Properties of Tomato Seedling
ZHU Zongwen, TIAN Shoubo, YANG Xuedong, ZHANG Hui, ZHANG Yongping
2020, 34 (4): 691-697. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.04.0691
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To determine the effect of electron beam on tomato seeds and seedlings. The dry seeds of two tomato cultivars, Huangpenzai and 1479, were respectively irradiated by six doses of electron beam (0, 200, 300, 400, 500, and 600 Gy) in this study. Then analyzed the germination rate of treated seeds and the physiological and biochemical properties of corresponding seedlings. The results showed that different doses of electron beam had significantly different effects on the seed germination rate and the physiological and biochemical properties of corresponding seedlings. With the increases of electron beam dose, the germination rate of Huangpenzai and 1479 treated by 600 Gy were both decreased significantly and reduced to 97.2% and 77.2% of that of the control. In addition, with electron beam dose increasing, many osmotic substances were increased significantly, proline (Pro) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were the two most increased substances; the activities of antioxidant enzymes were also changed, but did not show a certain trend with electron beam dose increasing. The effect of electron beam on tomato seeds was different at different dose, and the effect of the same dose on different tomato varieties seeds was also significantly different. In general, Huangpenzai showed stronger radiation resistance than 1479. The study would be helpful for the application of electron beam in tomato mutation breeding.
Radiation Effects of 60Co-γ Ray on the Cutting Seedlings of Nine Garden Rose
QI Wenquan, JIANG Zhenwei, WANG Yaqin, YANG Biao, LIU Bin, HE Yanhong, GAO Hongsheng
2020, 34 (4): 681-690. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.04.0681
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To investigate the radiation-induced effects of 60Co-γ ray on cutting seedlings of different rose cultivars, nine garden rose cutting seedlings, Fen Shan, Golden Scepter, Rouge Meilland, Roger Lambelin, Angela, Léonardo da Vinci, Eyes for You, Champagne and Everest Double Fragrance were irradiated at different doses (0, 25, 45, 60 and 80 Gy) by 60Co-γ ray. And the mortality rate, bud germination rate, mutation rate and the main morphological characteristics were investigated. The results showed that with radiation dose increase, mortality rate of cutting seedlings increased gradually from 33.61%(0 Gy) to 79.71%(80 Gy); the growthof rose cutting seedings was inhibited significantly, additionally, the mutation rate increased first and decreased afterwards, reached the maximum at the radiation dose of 45 Gy, which accounts for 64.70% of the total mutation(4.20‰). Furthermore, the susceptibility of different cultivars to 60Co-γ ray irradiation was variousand the semi-lethal radiation dose(LD 50)was also different, the effective value was distributed between 26 and 55 Gy among different rose cultivars. Taken the mortality rate, growth condition and variation rate that affected by 60Co-γ ray irradiation together, the best dose of 60Co-γ ray irradiation for garden rose cutting seedlings was 45 Gy. The results will provide theoretical bases for the radiation breeding of rose.
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