Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences ›› 2020, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (4): 839-848.DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.04.0839

• IsotopeTracerTechnique·Ecology&Environment·Physiology • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of Micro-sprinkling Irrigation on Yield and Water Use Efficiency in Summer Maize

ZHENG Mengjing1, ZHANG Lihua1, DONG Zhiqiang1, SHEN Haiping1, YAO Haipo1, ZHANG Lirong2, JIA Xiuling1,*   

  1. 1 Institute of Grain and Oil Crops, Hebei Academy of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, Shijiazhuang, Hebei 050035;
    2 Forestry Bureau of Hengshui City, Hengshui, Hebei 053000
  • Received:2018-09-17 Online:2020-04-10 Published:2020-02-12

微喷灌对夏玉米产量和水分利用效率的影响

郑孟静1, 张丽华1, 董志强1, 申海平1, 姚海坡1, 张丽荣2, 贾秀领1,*   

  1. 1 河北省农林科学院粮油作物研究所,河北 石家庄 050035;
    2 衡水市林业局,河北 衡水 053000
  • 通讯作者: *贾秀领,女,研究员,主要从事作物高产与资源高效利用研究。E-mail:jiaxiuling2013@163.com
  • 作者简介:郑孟静,女,助理研究员,主要从事作物栽培生理研究。E-mail:zhengmj96@126.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2016YFD0300106、2017YFD030090403),河北省农林院创新工程项目(2019-4-5)

Abstract: In irrigation agricultural region of north China, water resources deficit, high input and low efficiency are serious constraints for crop production. Based on this situation, the experiment was performed to explore the physiology mechanism of different irrigation mode affecting the yield and WUE of summer maize at rainproof shelter. The experiment was set up two irrigation mode, micro-sprinkling (38 mm per time) and border irrigation (75 mm per time), and three kinds of irrigation frenquency with one times (W1), two times (W2) and three times (W3). The soil water dynamic change of summer maize at all growing stages were monitored by real-time monitor system to clarify the water consumption characters of summer maize under different irrigation modes. Results showed that the grain yield increased with the irrigation times (i.e. the increased total irrigation amount) under the two irrigation patterns. The yield of micro-sprinkling irrigation was lower than that of border irrigation under the same irrigation times. PW2 treatment has more irrigation times and the same irrigation amount but higher yield by 5.0% in comparison with QW1. Compared with QW1, PW3 has reduced irrigation amount by 24% and more irrigation times, but the yield has increased by 14.3%. PW3 contributed to improving the photosynthetic rate and the accumulation of dry matter, hence increasing the grain weight and grain yield. The water consumption characters of PW2 and QW2 were further analyzed. Compared with QW2, PW2 reduced leaf area index (LAI), the transpiration rate, stages water consumption amount and intensity, daily evapotranspiration amount after irrigation and increased the use of deeper soil water, especially under 100 cm. These treatment resulted in the reduced total water consumption of whole growing periods of PW2 by 10.8% and increased WUE by 10.3% compared to QW2. The findings indicated that adopting micro-sprinkling irrigation pattern irrigation quota of 38 mm and irrigation 2-3 times can increase WUE in the premise of stable yield. This study provide guidence for reducing groundwater overdrawn, saving cost and increasing efficiency.

Key words: summer maize, micro-sprinkling irrigation, grain yield, water use efficiency

摘要: 为研究微喷灌对夏玉米产量和水分利用效率(WUE)的影响,本试验在旱棚条件下以郑单958为试验材料,设置2种灌水方式:微喷灌P(灌水定额:38 mm/次)和畦灌Q(灌水定额:75 mm/次),3种灌水次数:1次(W1)、2次(W2)和3次(W3),采用土壤水分测定仪实时监测整个夏玉米生长季多土层(0~200 cm)土壤体积含水量的动态变化。结果表明,在2种灌水模式下,随着灌水次数的增加(总灌水量增加),夏玉米产量呈增加趋势;相同灌水次数下,微喷灌处理的产量均低于畦灌。与QW1相比,PW2灌水量相同、灌水次数较多,产量提高5.0%;与QW2相比,PW3灌水量减少24%、灌水次数增加,产量提高14.3%。与QW1和QW2相比,PW3植株具有较高的穗位叶光合速率和干物质积累量,且增加了粒重和产量。进一步分析微喷灌(PW2)和畦灌(QW2)的耗水特性发现,与QW2相比,PW2叶面积指数、穗位叶蒸腾速率、阶段耗水量、耗水强度、灌水后日蒸散量及对0~100 cm土层水分的消耗均降低,而深层尤其是100 cm以下土壤水分的利用比例增加,进而PW2全生育期总蒸散量降低10.8%,WUE提高10.3%。综上所述,在华北地区夏玉米足墒播种前提下,采用微喷灌控水方式,灌水定额38 mm、灌水2~3次,可在保障产量的前提下,提高WUE。本研究对华北缺水地区压采地下水,实现节本增效具有重要的理论指导意义。

关键词: 夏玉米, 微喷灌, 产量, 水分利用效率