Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences ›› 2020, Vol. 34 ›› Issue (1): 157-168.DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.01.0157

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Effects of Nitrogen Management on Lodging Resistance of Direct-seeded Rice

JIANG Mingjin, WANG Haiyue, HE Yan, WANG Chunyu, LI Na, YANG Zhiyuan, SUN Yongjian, MA Jun*   

  1. Rice Research Institute, Sichuan Agricultural University/Crop Ecophysiology and Cultivation Key Laboratory of Sichuan Province, Wenjiang, Sichuan 611130
  • Received:2018-05-21 Online:2020-01-10 Published:2019-11-05

氮肥管理对直播杂交水稻抗倒伏能力的影响

蒋明金, 王海月, 何艳, 王春雨, 李娜, 杨志远, 孙永健, 马均*   

  1. 四川农业大学水稻研究所/作物生理生态及栽培四川省重点实验室,四川 温江 611130
  • 通讯作者: *,马均,男,教授,主要从事水稻栽培技术研究。E-mail: majunp2002@163.com
  • 作者简介:蒋明金,男,主要从事水稻栽培技术研究。E-mail:mj_jiang2008@163.com
  • 基金资助:

    国家重点研发计划(2017YFD0301701、2017YFD0301706、2016YFD0300506),四川省科技支撑计划(2016NZ0107),四川省“十三五”育种攻关专项

Abstract:

In order to further study the effects of nitrogen managements on the culm lodging of direct-seeded rice, based on the optimum seeding rate and nitrogen application method clarified in our previous study, two field experiments were conducted with hybrid rice F you 498 and the new-selected hybrid rice De you 4923 as the materials. Five nitrogen levels (90, 120, 150, 180 and 210 kg·hm-2, the ratio of basal fertilizer: tillering fertilizer: earing fertilizer was 3∶3∶4) in experiment 1; and four nitrogen application treatments based on the nitrogen level was 150 kg·hm-2 (the ratio of basal fertilizer: tillering fertilizer: earing fertilizer was 10∶0∶0, 4∶4∶2, 3∶3∶4 and 2∶2∶6, respectively) in the second experiment were set up to study the difference in culm morphology, mechanical index, chemical composition of the culm and its relationship with lodging resistance of direct-seeded rice under different nitrogen levels and nitrogen application methods. The results showed that the bending moment of the whole plant, section modulus, bending stress, culm diameter, and the carbohydrates content and K content of the fourth internode were decreased with the increasing nitrogen level or the rate of earing fertilizer. The increase of nitrogen level was accompanied by the elongation of the internodes, the increase of the plant height and the height of the gravity center, which resulted in the increase of lodging index and the higher lodging risk. Hybrid rice cultivars F you 498 and De you 4923 could have the higher grain yield and lodging resistance of culm in direct-seeded rice at 150 kg·hm-2nitrogen level combined with the ratio of basal fertilizer: tillering fertilizer: earing fertilizer was 3∶3∶4 and 4∶4∶2, respectively. Moreover, the bending moment at breaking, the outer diameter of the major axis, hemicellulose content, and N content play a vital role in the lodging resistance of culm in direct-seeded rice. This study provides a theoretical basis for the rational management of nitrogen fertilizers in the development of direct-seeded rice technology.

Key words: nitrogen level, nitrogen application method, stem lodging, chemical composition, grain yield

摘要:

为进一步探究氮肥管理对直播杂交水稻茎秆倒伏的影响,在前期研究初步明确直播杂交水稻最适播种量和氮肥运筹方式的基础上,以四川主推杂交稻F优498和新选育杂交稻德优4923为试验材料开展2个大田试验,分别为设5个施氮水平(90、120、150、180和210 kg·hm-2,基肥∶分蘖肥∶穗肥比均为3∶3∶4);在150 kg·hm-2施氮水平下设4种氮肥运筹方式(基肥∶分蘖肥∶穗肥比分别为10∶0∶0、4∶4∶2、3∶3∶4 和2∶2∶6),研究不同施氮水平和氮肥运筹方式对直播杂交水稻茎秆形态学、力学指标及茎秆化学成分组成的影响及其与抗倒伏能力的关系。结果表明,施氮水平的提高或氮素穗肥比例的增加均会降低直播杂交水稻茎秆折断弯矩、断面系数、弯曲应力、第4节间直径和茎秆碳水化合物含量和钾含量,且施氮水平的增加还伴随茎秆各节间伸长、株高和重心高度增加,倒伏指数增加,倒伏风险增大。直播杂交水稻F优498和德优4923均在施氮水平150 kg·hm-2,氮肥运筹方式分别在基肥∶分蘖肥∶穗肥比为 3∶3∶4 和4∶4∶2条件下获得较理想产量,同时也具备较高的抗倒伏能力。水稻茎秆折断弯矩、外径长轴长、纤维素和氮含量等指标在直播杂交水稻抗倒伏能力中起着重要作用。本研究结果为完善直播杂交水稻技术中合理的氮肥管理提供了理论基础。

关键词: 施氮水平, 氮肥运筹, 茎秆倒伏, 化学成分, 产量