Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences ›› 2018, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (10): 2043-2053.DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2018.10.2043

• Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology & Environment·Physiology • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effect of Nitrogen Regulation on Super Rice Yield and Nitrogen Use Efficiency Under the Condition of Direct Seeding

JIANG Peng, XIONG Hong, ZHANG Lin, GUO Xiaoyi, ZHU Yongchuan, LIU Mao, CHEN Lin, XU Fuxian*   

  1. Key Laboratory of Southwest Rice Biology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Agriculture/Rice and Sorghum Research Institute, Sichuan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Deyang, Sichuan 618000
  • Received:2017-04-14 Revised:2017-09-11 Online:2018-10-10 Published:2018-08-13

直播条件下氮素调控对超级稻产量和氮肥利用率的影响

蒋鹏, 熊洪, 张林, 郭晓艺, 朱永川, 刘茂, 陈琳, 徐富贤*   

  1. 四川省农业科学院水稻高粱研究所/农业部西南水稻生物学与遗传育种重点实验室, 四川 德阳 618000
  • 通讯作者: 徐富贤,男,研究员,主要从事水稻栽培、生理生态研究。E-mail:xu6501@163.com
  • 作者简介:蒋鹏,男,副研究员,主要从事水稻栽培、生理生态研究。E-mail:jiangyipeng137@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    四川省农业科学院优秀论文基金(2016LWJJ-009),四川省科技支撑计划(2016NZ0112)

Abstract: To clarify the effects of different nitrogen regulation on grain yield and nitrogen use efficiency of super rice under the condition of direct seeding, a field experiment with ordinary inbred and hybrid, and super inbred and hybrid rice cultivars was conducted in Deyang City, Sichuan Province in 2016. Three different nitrogen (N) treatments and a control were set in this study including non-N treatment (N0), farmers' fertilizer practice (N1, for N1 treatment, four concentrations of 60, 60, 60, and 45 kg·hm-2 were applied at basal, three-leaf seedling stage, mid-tillering and panicle initiation, respectively), and site-specific N management (N2 and N3, for N2 treatment, 30, 60, 45, 30, and 15 kg·hm-2 were applied at basal, three-leaf seedling stage, mid-tillering, panicle initiation and heading, respectively; for N3 treatment, 30, 60, 45, and 15 kg·hm-2 were applied seedling stage (three leaves), mid-tillering, panicle initiation and heading, respectively). The grain yield, yield components, N uptake, N distribution and N use efficiency were measured in this study. The results show that grain yield was significantly affected by cultivars. Compared with ordinary hybrid and inbred rice, the yield of super hybrid rice increased by 12.2% and 8.9%, respectively, while that of super inbred rice increased by 3.2% and 0.3% respectively. Reduced nitrogen application rate with site-specific N regulation could increase grain yield of direct seeding super rice. N2 and N3 treatments were 20.0%-33.3% less nitrogen than N1 and the yield increased by 0.2%.0.7%. The yield-increasing superiority was mainly grain number per spike, seed setting rate and harvest index. The N2 treatment has slightly higher grain yield than N3 treatment. The yield gaps between N2 and N3 treatments were attributed to the differences in panicles per m2 and biomass production. Compared with the N1 treatment, the N2 and N3 treatments had lower total N uptake and distribution percentage in straw, but higher N distribution percentage in filling grain. Compared with N1 treatment, the average nitrogen use efficiency (AEN), partial factor productivity of applied N (PFPN) and recovery efficiency of applied N (REN) of N2 increased by 28.9%, 25.8% and 7.0% on average, and the average N3 treatment increased by 50.8 %, 50.2%, and 13.6%, respectively. Therefore, reduced basal and three leaves N fertilizer application with site-specific N regulation as one of alternative approaches to synchronously increase the grain yield and N use efficiency in direct seeding system in Chengdu plain. The study provides a theoretical reference for optimum nitrogen regulation in super rice production under direct seeding.

Key words: direct seeding, super rice, nitrogen use efficiency, grain yield

摘要: 为探究氮素调控对直播超级稻产量形成和氮肥利用率的影响,本研究以普通常规稻、普通杂交稻、超级常规稻和超级稻杂交稻为试验材料,进行不同氮素调控大田试验,共设置4个处理:不施氮(N0)、习惯施氮N1(基肥、苗肥、分蘖肥、穗肥分别为60、60、60、45 kg·hm-2)、测苗定氮施肥N2(基肥、苗肥、分蘖肥、穗肥、粒肥分别为30、60、45、30、15 kg·hm-2)和N3(苗肥、分蘖肥、穗肥、粒肥分别为30、60、45、15 kg·hm-2),探究直播超级稻产量、产量构成、氮素吸收、氮素分配、氮肥利用率对不同氮素调控的响应。结果表明,不同品种间产量差异显著,与普通常规稻、普通杂交稻相比,超级杂交稻产量分别增加了12.2%、8.9%,超级常规稻产量分别增加了3.2%、0.3%。减量施氮下采用测苗定氮技术可提高直播超级稻产量, N2、N3较N1减氮20.0%~33.3%,产量增加了0.2%~0.7%,增产优势主要表现为每穗粒数、结实率和收获指数。N2产量略高于N3,其增产优势在于较高的有效穗和干物质产量。N1氮素总吸收量较N2、N3高,但其籽粒氮素分配比例较低,稻草氮素分配比例较高。与N1相比,N2水稻的氮肥农学利用率(AEN)、氮肥偏生产力(PFPN)、氮肥吸收利用率(REN)平均增加了28.9%、25.8%、7.0%,N3平均增加了50.8%、50.2%、13.6%。综上,减少基肥、苗肥的施氮量并结合测苗定氮施肥技术可实现成都平原直播超级稻产量和氮肥利用率的协同提高。本研究为直播超级稻生产中氮素优化管理提供了理论参考。

关键词: 直播, 超级稻, 氮肥利用率, 产量