Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences ›› 2018, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (3): 555-560.DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2018.03.0555

• Isotope Tracer Technique·Ecology & Environment·Physiology • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effects of Different Direct Seeding Methods on Weed Occurrence in Paddy Field and Grain Yield of Early Season Indica Rice in South of China

WANG Wenxia, ZENG Yanhua*, ZENG Yongjun, LIANG Xihuan, TAN Xueming, SHI Qinghua, PAN Xiaohua   

  1. Jiangxi Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding/Key Laboratory of Crop Physiology, Ecology and Genetic Breeding, Ministry of Education/Collaborative Innovation Center for the Modernization Production of Double Cropping Rice, Jiangxi Agricultural University, Nanchang, Jiangxi 330045
  • Received:2017-08-23 Revised:2017-12-03 Online:2018-03-10 Published:2018-01-23

不同直播方式对南方稻田杂草发生及早籼稻产量的影响

王文霞, 曾研华*, 曾勇军, 梁喜欢, 谭雪明, 石庆华, 潘晓华   

  1. 江西农业大学双季稻现代化生产协同创新中心/作物生理生态与遗传育种教育部重点实验室/江西省作物生理生态与遗传育种重点实验室,江西 南昌 330045
  • 通讯作者: *曾研华,男,讲师,主要从事水稻高产栽培研究。E-mail: zyh74049501@163.com
  • 作者简介:王文霞,女,主要从事水稻高产栽培研究。E-mail: 15797688640@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    国家重点研发计划(2017YFNC050028),国家自然科学基金项目(31760366),江西现代农业科研协同创新专项经费(JXXTCX2015001-004),江西省自然科学基金(20161BAB214171)

Abstract: In order to study the occurrence of weeds in paddy fields with different direct seeding patterns and solve weed control problems, inbred rice ZhongJiazao17 and hybrid rice Zhuliangyou819 were selected, field experiments were set with three treatments (dry direct seeding, wet direct seeding and water direct seeding) to study the influence on the occurrence of weeds in paddy fields and grain yield of early indica rice in south of China. The results showed that there was no significant difference on weed species in different direct seeding patterns, and the main weed species contained gramineous weeds such as Echinochloa crusgalli, Stellaria uliginosa and Eleusine indica, and broadleaf weeds such as Commelina communi L, Monochoria vaginali, Portulaca oleracea L and Murdannia triguetra, while obvious differences were observed on the dominant populations of weeds in paddy fields under different direct seeding patterns. The Echinochloa crusgall was the dominant species weed in dry direct seeding pattern, which the range was accounted from 48.60% to 54.17% in the total ratio of all weeds, while the Monochoria vaginali was the dominant species weed in both wet direct seeding and water direct seeding paddy fields, which the range was accounted from 43.00% to 46.44% and 36.00% to 38.66% in the total ratio of weeds, respectively. There were significant differences on the quantity of weeds in different direct seeding patterns, following the order of dry direct seeding < wet direct seeding < water direct seeding. The number of weeds in direct seeding drought was 3.44% ~ 6.71% and 40.92% ~ 42.89% lower than wet direct seeding and water direct seeding, respectively. The biomass of weeds in dry direct seeding in paddy fields were less than wet direct seeding and water direct seeding. Meanwhile, compared with wet direct seeding and water direct seeding, the emergence of rice seedling, the number of effective panicles and seed setting rate of dry direct seeding significantly increased. The yield of two kinds of tested varieties increased by 21.26% ~ 27.65%, 28.52% ~ 35.49%, respectively. In addition, the trend of the occurrence of weeds and the yield of early indica rice under different direct seeding ways are basically similer. In conclusion, it suggested dry direct seeding reduced weed emergence in paddy field and increased grain yield of early season indica rice. This study provides a theoretical basis for achieving high and stable yield of direct seeding rice.

Key words: early indica rice, mechanical direct seeding, dry direct seeding, weed emergence, grain yield

摘要: 为探究不同直播方式稻田杂草的发生规律,解决杂草防除难题,本试验以常规稻中嘉早17和杂交稻两优819为供试材料,设置旱直播、湿直播和水直播3种直播方式,研究不同直播方式对南方稻田杂草发生及早籼稻产量的影响。结果表明,不同直播方式下稻田杂草种类差异不明显,其杂草种类主要有稗草、雀舌草和牛筋草等禾本科杂草及鸭跖草、鸭舌草、马齿苋和水竹叶等阔叶类杂草;但不同直播方式下稻田杂草的优势种群差异明显,旱直播稻田以稗草为优势种群,占总杂草比例的48.60%~54.17%,而湿直播和水直播稻田均以鸭舌草为优势种群,分别占总杂草的43.00%~46.44%、36.00%~38.66%。不同直播方式下稻田杂草数量差异显著,2供试品种的稻田杂草数量排序均为旱直播<湿直播<水直播,旱直播杂草数量比湿直播、水直播分别降低3.44%~6.71%、40.92%~42.89%,且旱直播稻田杂草干物质量也均低于湿直播和水直播。与湿直播、水直播方式相比,旱直播提高了2供试品种的出苗率、有效穗数及结实率,并显著增加了水稻产量,2供试品种产量增幅分别达21.26%~27.65%、28.52%~35.49%。此外,不同直播方式下早籼稻品种间杂草发生与产量变化趋势基本一致。综上,采用旱直播方式可减少稻田杂草发生,提高早籼稻产量。本研究结果为实现直播稻高产稳产提供了理论依据。

关键词: 早籼稻, 机械直播, 旱直播, 杂草发生, 产量