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Advance in Preparation and Application of Biochar and Modified Biochar Research
JI Haiyang, WANG Yuying, LIU Yuxue, LYU Haohao, HE Lili, YANG Shengmao
2018, 32 (11): 2281-2287. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2018.11.2281
Abstract727)   HTML23)    PDF (1140KB)(1635)      
Biochar has been widely used in soil improvement, pollutant removal, carbon sequestration and mitigation because of its wide source of materials, large specific surface area, well developed pores, rich carbon, rich surface functional groups, etc. In recent years, biochar has been found that the physical, chemical or biological modification of biochar will intensify the functions of biochar, and be more favorable to the efficient utilization of biochar. This paper reviews the preparation, physical and chemical properties analysis, and the application of biochar and modified biochar in soil, water, and atmosphere. The problems existing in the utilization of biochar are analyzed objectively by comparing the properties of biochar before and after modification. It will provide a certain theoretical basis for the reasonable preparation and application of biochar and modified biochar.
Effects of Lipids on Gel Properties of Food Proteins and Its Mechanism
ZHOU Xuxia, CHEN Hong, CHEN Ting, LYU Fei, GU Saiqi, DING Yuting
2018, 32 (9): 1808-1813. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2018.09.1808
Abstract401)   HTML203)    PDF (1133KB)(1384)      
Gel, which is a dilution system of unsteady fluids, is a mesophase between the solid and the liquid. Gel properties are one of the important functional properties of food proteins. Studies show that in some special protein gel systems, the interactions between lipid and protein have an important effect on the quality of the food through affecting the rheological properties and microstructure of protein gels. The interactions are affected by lipid species, lipid content, emulsifier, ion species and concentration and other factors. In this paper, the mechanism of the formation of protein gel was introduced. Based on this, we focused on the participation and mechanisms of lipids in the formation of protein gels in several protein gel systems, reviewed factors that affect lipid and food protein gel interaction, and put forward problems and development direction for the lipid and protein gel research.. The results would provide a theoretical basis for the production of high quality food.
Evaluation of Soil Nutrient Content and Its Distribution of Cultivated Land in South of Xinjiang: Taking Aksu Prefecture as an Example
TIAN Liwen, QI Yongchun, DAI Lu, CUI Jianping, GUO Rensong, XU Haijiang, LIN Tao, ZHANG Na
2020, 34 (1): 214-223. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.01.0214
Abstract563)   HTML12)    PDF (2491KB)(1159)      
To explore the soil nutrient content and distribution characteristics of cultivated land in south Xinjiang after years of cultivating since the second national land survey in 1982, the Aksu prefecture of xinjiang cotton producing area with typical natural ecological conditions in southern Xinjiang was taken as a representative in our research. Field investigation and laboratory analysis were used to measure the soil major element content of organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and microelement content of available copper, iron, zinc, manganese, then the determination results were analyzed by combining with relevant indices of soil nutrient grading in Xinjiang. The results showed that compared with 1982, soil nutrient content in the cultivated land was greatly improved. The average organic matter content of the whole region was 13.56 g·kg -1; total nitrogen alkaline hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium were 680, 62.30, 13.90 and 145.00 mg·kg -1, respectively. Among them, the organic matter content in Aksu Prefecture was the same as that of in 1982, while the available potassium content was decreased at rate of 2.20 mg·kg -1 annually , and the content of available nitrogen and available phosphorus were higher 74.50% and 385.86% than that of in 1982, respectively. The overall result was as follows: that the content of phosphorus and potassium was abundant, the organic matter was in the middle level, except for the effective manganese content in the lower-middle level; the content of effective copper, available iron and zinc were in different degree of abundant state, and the content of nitrogen was low. In summary, it was recommended to strengthen the implementation of the balanced fertilization program for the current nutrient content levels and trends of soil, and to improve the content of soluble fertilizers such as nitrogen through reasonable irrigation, and prevent soil salinization. Thus, this research provided a theoretical basis for the future agricultural production of soil fertility and scientific fertilization in Aksu prefecture.
WU Jing LIU Xiu-min ZHANG Wei CHEN Ming LIN Min(1.Biotechnology Research Institute,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Beijing 100081;2.Hebei Jiaotong Vocational & Technical College,Shijiazhuang,Hebei 050091)
2008, 22 (05): 590-594. DOI: 10.11869/hnxb.2008.05.0590
Abstract1922)      PDF (205KB)(4540)      

In this study,the 1.4 kb sacB gene from Bacillus subtilis genomic DNA was cloned into the expression vector pET-28a(+).The product of gene sacB had the levansucrase activity determined by glucose release from sucrose hydrolysis. The expression of sacB gene in Escherichia coli could cause cell death when exposed to 5% sucrose in medium.And sacB gene also confered a sucrose-sensitive phenotype for the extremely radiation-resistant bacterium,Deinococcus sp.BR501.Using the conditional-lethal gene sacB to analyze the mutation rates of Deinococcus sp.BR501,we found that the rate of the DNA mismatch repair deficient strain(ΔmutS1) was obviously higher than that of wild type strain.Our result suggested that B.subtilis sacB gene could be used as a negative-selection marker to identify and characterize the genes involved in DNA demage repair.

LI Yong~1WEI Yi-min~(1,2)WANG Feng~2(1.Collage of Food Science Technology and Engineering, Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, Yang Ling, Shaanxi, 712100; 2.Institute of Agro-Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100094)
2005, 19 (03): 236-240. DOI: 10.11869/hnxb.2005.03.0236
Abstract1367)      PDF (209KB)(4453)      

This article discusses various factors that may affect the accuracy of analysis results by NIR Spectroscopy technique. Content of ingredient and quantity, physical properties of references and samples; test conditions and instrumental factors are reviewed in terms of influence on the result accuracy of NIR spectroscopy analysis. The precaution measures to avoid the influences during analysis are provided.

Study on Physicochemical Properties and Chemical Structure of the Blue Purple Pigment Producted by Bacteria
XU Man, HAN Ye, LYU Jiaping, XUE Haixiao, PANG Xiaoyang, ZHANG Shuwen, LIU Lu
2016, 30 (3): 533-540. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2016.03.0533
Abstract249)   HTML1)    PDF (6390KB)(680)      
In order to explore the basic properties of the blue and purple nature pigments produced by bacteria.Experiments used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to analysis the physicochemical properties and chemical structure of the blue purple pigment producted by psychrophilic bacteria.The results showed that: the blue-purple pigment was verified to be composed of deoxidation violacein and violacein with the ratio of about 1∶9. The results of the physical and chemical properties of the blue purple pigment revealed that the purple pigment had good thermal stability, but light and strong alkali had a larger effect on color; soluble in methanol, acetone and other organic solvents, slightly soluble in water; copper ion has a great influence on its stability. This study provides a basis for the research and application of the biological activity, anti tumor, anti viral drugs and biological dyes,etc.
Biochar Concept Connotation and Phrases Discrimination
SHENG Kuichuan, YANG Shengmao
2022, 36 (2): 481-487. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.02.0481
Abstract725)   HTML21)    PDF (1231KB)(560)      

The Chinese expression of the terminology “biochar” has created arguments in academic world for many years. This paper looks insight into the concept of biochar and analyzes the confusion nomenclature phenomena, based on the basic method of logistics on concept, phrases, definition and classification. By clarifying the logic problems on the definition and classification of biochar, this work established good practice for the in-depth understanding of biochar terminology, and promoting the spread of the related scientific knowledge and the application of the technological achievements.

Screening and Evaluation of Cucumber Salt-Tolerant Germplasm
CAO Qiwei, DU Lianda, YANG Zonghui, LI Libin, DUAN Xi, YANG Wenqiang, CHEN Wei, MENG Zhaojuan
2022, 36 (5): 865-875. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.05.0865
Abstract320)   HTML32)    PDF (8896KB)(398)      

In order to clarify the different tolerance of cucumber germplasm to NaCl, the salt-tolerant material MC2065 and salt-sensitive material White cucumber were used to verify the appropriate concentration of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 mM NaCl. And nine physiological and biochemical indexes, including salt tolerance index, chlorophyll, and protective enzymes under NaCl treatment were used to evaluate the salt-tolerances of 21 germplasms. The results showed that 100 and 150 mM could be the appropriate concentration.The salt injury index of White cucumber was 35.94% in 100 mM NaCl, showing obvious damage to leaves, while that of MC2065 was 4.69% and showed no obvious damage. Under 150 mM, both showed obvious damage, more than half of leaves were withered for White cucumber, but less than half for MC2065. With cluster analysis, 21 germplasms were divided into 3 groups. The first group categorized as salt-tolerant germplasm, including ZQ3, N26-5-1, Shoushui 1, DRTJY-2, Laixi, Cuiyu, 20S077-1. The second group, including DJ04, DY-1, XY1, YY9123, M2XT, D1503, X805, was medium salt-tolerant germplasm. And the third group was salt-sensitive germplasm, which included F6-3-1, SJ11-1, XB23, 20S091-1, HLT-921h, AZ-1, DRT345. The trend of comprehensive scores of cucumber germplasm by the compoment analysis was basically consistent with that obtained by cluster analysis and seedlings survival rate. The study will provide references for investigating cucumber salt-tolerant mechanism and lay a foundation for the breeding of cucumber salt-tolerant varieties.

Effects of Chenodeoxycholic Acid on the Rat Intestinal Microbiota Structure and Gut Functions
QIAN Guimin, QI Lili, FAN Zheyu
2018, 32 (11): 2267-2273. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2018.11.2267
Abstract234)   HTML1)    PDF (6425KB)(777)      
To explore effect of chenodeoxycholic acid on rat intestinal microbiota structure and clarify the relations of chenodeoxycholic acid, intestinal microbiota and gut functions, intestinal cholic acid lacking rat model was established by bile duct ligation, the model rats were gavaged with cholic acid for 7 days with collecting the colon tissue and extracting total protein. Intestinal morphology was observed by HE staining. ELISA and Western Blot were performed to determine the expression levels of inflammatory factors and NF-κBp50/p65. High-throughput sequencing was performed to analyze the change of intestinal microbiota structure. These studies were conducted to reveal the mechanism by which chenodeoxycholic acid affects intestinal microbiota and intestinal functions. The results showed chenodeoxycholic acid significantly reduced the quantities of Clostridiaceae, Coriobacteriaceae and Erysipelotrichaceae, down-regulated the expression levels of NF-κB p50/p65, repressed the NF-κB pathway, and attenuate the expression level of inflammatory factors such as TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β,which were beneficial to the normal functions of the rat gut. In conclusion, chenodeoxycholic acid could change the intestinal microbiota structure and affect gut functions. This study will supply a theoretical basis for revealing the more important physiological functions of cholic acid and intestinal microbiota.
Nutrition Quality Evaluation and Correlation Analysis of Longshu Potato Varieties Named With Series
WEN Guohong, LI Gaofeng, LI Jianwu, ZHANG Rong, MA Sheng, JIA Xiaoxia
2018, 32 (11): 2162-2169. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2018.11.2162
Abstract257)   HTML2)    PDF (1125KB)(898)      
To understand the main nutrition characters of potato varieties named ‘Longshu’, the contents of five main quality traits (dry matter, starch, reducing sugar, vitamin C, crude protein) and five mineral elements (potassium, calcium, iron, zinc, selenium) in tuber of 14 potato varieties bred by breeding team in Potato Research Institute, Gansu Academy of Agricultural Sciences were determined. Then, the correlations between the contents of tuber mineral element and quality traits, and the comprehensive appraisal of nutritional quality were analyzed respectively by the methods of correlation analysis and the membership function. The results showed that the main quality characters and mineral element contents in tuber of potato differed significantly among varieties. Among the five main quality traits, the highest and the smallest variation coefficient were observed in content of reducing sugar and dry matter with the variation coefficient of 101.30% and 11.64%, respectively. Among the five mineral elements, the highest and the smallest variation coefficient were observed in content of selenium and potassium with variation coefficient of 29.78% and 7.62% respectively. The results of correlation analysis showed that the content of dry matter in tuber of potato was significantly positively correlated with content of starch. The content of crude protein in tuber of potato was significantly positively correlated with content of dry matter and starch, but significantly negatively correlated with the content of reducing sugar and vitamin C. The content of vitamin C was significantly positively correlated with content of reducing sugar. The correlation between other quality traits did not reach a significant level. The content of mineral element potassium in tuber of potato was significantly positively correlated with content of dry matter and starch. The content of calcium in tuber of potato was significantly positively correlated with content of crude protein. The correlation between other mineral elements and five quality traits was not significant. Comprehensive evaluation results showed that the nutritional quality of each variety was very different with the following the order of Longshu N0.8>Longshu N0.14> LY08104-12> LZ111>Longshu N0.9>Longshu N0.7>Longshu N0.12>Longshu N0.10>Longshu N0.3>Longshu N0.6> Longshu N0.11>LK99>Longshu N0.13>Longshu N0.5. This study would not only provide a scientific basis for the rational application of the potato varieties named‘Longshu’, but also provide a theoretical reference for the breeding of new potato varieties.
Research Progress in Preparation and Application of Cellulose Nanocrystals
ZHU Shunshun, MU Taihua, SUN Hongnan
2022, 36 (1): 174-182. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.01.0174
Abstract538)   HTML30)    PDF (5236KB)(470)      

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) are rod-like nanomaterials extracted from natural plant fibers, with a length of several hundred nanometers and a width of 5~50 nm. Because it is natural green, biodegradable, biocompatible with high specific surface area and great reactivity, CNC has been widely investigated by researchers. In this review, the preparation and modification methods of CNC are summarized, and the characterization methods of CNC are also introduced. Furthermore, the applications of CNC materials in biomedicine, photoelectric energy, environmental protection, food and other fields are also summarized, and its future development trend is prospected. This review may provide theoretical references for the development and utilization of cellulose nanocrystals.

Effect of Stabiliser on the Textural Property of Egg Curd Prepared From Liquid Egg White
TANG Honggang, GUO Shichun, YANG Huijuan, XIAO Chaogeng, LU Wenjing, CHEN Di, CHEN Lihong
2020, 34 (2): 307-314. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.02.0307
Abstract284)   HTML4)    PDF (1307KB)(819)      
In order to explore the effect of stabiliser on the textural properties of egg curd prepared from liquid egg white, sensory score and texture characteristics (hardness, gumminess, chewiness, springiness, cohesiveness and resilience) were compared for the addition of water, NaCl and stabiliser. The results showed that the sensory score and texture parameters of egg curd changed significantly with the addition of water and NaCl. The quality of egg curd was relatively better with 12% water and 1.5% salt addition. Compared with the control group, the sensory score for the test group with addition of phosphate compound, glutamine transaminase, guar gum and gellan gum was increased, and the texture was also improved. The optimum addition of the stabiliser was: compound phosphate 0.20%, TG enzyme 0.25%, guar gum 0.25%, gellan gum 0.10%. This study could provide a technical guidance for improving the processing, sensory quality and textural properties of egg curd prepared from liquid egg white.
Review on Chemical Structures and Biological Activities of Spermidine Derivatives in Plants
ZHAO Shuo, XING Cencan, WANG Yan, SUO Ran, WANG Fengzhong
2018, 32 (1): 123-130. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2018.01.0123
Abstract276)   HTML8)    PDF (1167KB)(1122)      
Spermidine derivatives, which widely existed in the pollen, leaf and fruit in the plants, are a kind of natural compounds which the hydrogen atom of spermidine is replaced by other functional group. The structural identification, purification, especially the biological activities of spermidine derivatives are still worthy to explore. This review summarizes the chemical structures, sources, purification and biological activities of spermidine derivatives reported in the past 30 years, which may possibly build a foundation for future research of spermidine derivatives with special functions.
Overview of the Characteristics of Crop Straw Decomposition and Nutrients Release of Returned Field Crops
ZHANG Jingting, ZHANG Lihua, LYU Lihua, DONG Zhiqiang, YAO Yanrong, JIN Xinxin, YAO Haipo, JIA Xiuling
2018, 32 (11): 2274-2280. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2018.11.2274
Abstract386)   HTML3)    PDF (1122KB)(769)      
As one of the most effective utilization ways of crop straw, straw returning can significantly increase crop yield and promote resource recycling and sustainable agricultural development. The rapid decomposition of straw returned to the field played a critical role in improving topsoil quality and increasing soil fertility. The objective of this study was to summarize the characteristics of crop straw decomposition and mineral nutrient release after straw returning to the field. The related factors which could have profound influences on straw decomposition and nutrients release were also discussed. These factors mainly consisted of crop species, straw C∶N value, exogenous nitrogen application, straw returning methods, biodegradation agents and the soil environment condition, etc. Finally, the paper put forward the prospect on how to realize the efficient utilization of straw resources in the new production condition. The study provided a scientific and systematic straw returning program for crop production, and provided a theoretical basis for accelerating the decomposition of straw and releasing and reusing nutrients.
Effects of Several Environmental Factors on Nutrient Accumulations of Nannochloropsis oceanica
ZHANG Yuanbo, TIAN Jiaojiao, YE Lingzhi, YE Zhengwei, ZHANG Lin, XU Jilin
2022, 36 (6): 1273-1283. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.06.1273
Abstract151)   HTML15)    PDF (2045KB)(348)      

To explore effects of light intensity, light quality, nitrogen, and phosphorus on nutrient accumulations inNannochloropsis oceanica, this study was designed into four parts as followed. The light intensity was set as 20, 80, 140 and 200 μmol photons·m-2·s-1, respectively, in the light intensity experiment. In the part of light quality, ratios of red-blue-green light were adjusted to 100%, 50% and 0%, respectively, according to the RGB principle. Nitrogen concentration was set as 55.40, 13.85, 3.46 and 1.73 mg·L-1 in the nitrogen experiment, respectively. Phosphorus concentration was set to 8.96, 2.24, 0.56 and 0.28 mg·L-1 in the phosphorus experiment, respectively. The initial inoculation density was unified and the composition of fatty acids, pigment, protein, and soluble sugar were measured after 25 days. At the light intensity of 200 μmol photons·m-2·s-1, N. oceanicaobtained the fastest growth rate, the highest biomass; besides, the concentration of protein (5.17 mg·mL-1), and soluble sugar (2.40 mg·mL-1) is the greatest. At the light intensity of 20 μmol photons·m-2·s-1, the ratio of chlorophyll a was the highest. Overall, the contents of protein and soluble sugar increased with light intensity. The light quality experiment showed that the red light had a certain effect on promoting the growth and soluble sugar accumulation, while blue and green lights did not. Results also suggested that the green light was conducive to β-carotene accumulation, but 100% green light significantly inhibited the growth of N. oceanica. At the nitrogen concentration of 55.40 mg·L-1, the proportions of unsaturated fatty acids and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) of N. oceanicareached the maximum, which were 68.23% and 20.50%, respectively. With the nitrogen concentration declining, the growth rate, protein, and soluble sugar inN. oceanicasignificantly decreased. Similarly, with the phosphorus concentration declining, the growth rate and protein content significantly decreased. The phosphorus concentration of 2.24 mg·L-1 was beneficial to soluble sugar accumulation. This study provides theoretical support for optimizing the cultivation of N. oceanica under different environmental factors, which has certain practical significance and economic value.

LIU Lu-xiang GUO Hui-jun ZHAO Lin-shu GU Jia-yu ZHAO Shi-rong (Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/ The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement,Beijing 100081)
2007, 21 (06): 589-592+601. DOI: 10.11869/hnxb.2007.06.0589
Abstract1964)      PDF (182KB)(2795)      

Space breeding is a novel effective approach to crop mutational improvement,which was firstly founded by the chinese scientists in 1987.A national collaborative research network has been established and significant achievements have been made during the past twenty years.More than forty new mutant varieties derived from space mutagenesis in rice,wheat,cotton,sweet pepper,tomato,sesame and alfalfa have been developed,officially released and put into production.A series of useful rare mutant germplasms which might make a great breakthrough in crop grain yield and/or quality improvement have been obtained.Technique innovations in space breeding and ground simulation of space environmental factors have been made good progresses.Intellective property right protection and industrialization of space mutation techniques and mutant varieties,exploration of the mechanism of space mutation induction have also been stably advanced.In this paper,the main achievements of crop space breeding in the past twenty years had been reviewed.The perspective development strategies of space breeding were also discussed.

Research Progress on Functional Regulation of Flap Endonuclease 1 by Programmed Post-Translational Modification
JIA Lanlan, WANG Yiyi, HUA Yuejin, XU Hong
2020, 34 (6): 1205-1212. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.06.1205
Abstract470)   HTML8)    PDF (2282KB)(800)      
The flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1) is a member of the structure-specific 5' nuclease superfamily, known for participating in Okazaki fragment maturation, DNA recombination, apoptotic DNA fragmentation and long-fragment base excision repair (LP-BER). FEN1 plays its role in various metabolic pathways to maintain genome stability in different species. Abnormal expression of FEN1 in vivo can lead to disorders in many biological processes, such as increased mutation rate of autoimmune deficiency, unstable microsatellite sequence, DNA degradation and so on, resulting in serious damage to the organisms. Therefore, the expression of FEN1 in vivo must be regulated strictly, accurately and promptly. Recent studies have shown that post-translational modification of FEN1 plays an important role in regulating its activity, cellular localization and functional stability. In this paper, the research progress on the regulation of FEN1 post-translational modification was summarized, showing the regulation and influence of post-translational modification of FEN1 on its function, providing a basis for further study on the procedural regulation of FEN1.
Genome-wide Identification and Expression Analysis of BES1 Gene Family in Capsicum annuum
MENG Chunyang, WEI Xiaochun, ZHAO Yanyan, YUAN Yuxiang, WANG Zhiyong, YANG Shuangjuan, JIANG Jun, ZHANG Xiaowei
2019, 33 (8): 1467-1473. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2019.08.1467
Abstract361)   HTML3)    PDF (4556KB)(972)      
BES1 is the key transcription factors of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling. In order to understand the function of BES1 gene family in pepper, bioinformatic analysis was used to identify the BES1 gene family according to the released pepper whole-genome sequences. Gene structure, protein domain, phylogenetic relationship, gene expression pattern and biotic and abiotic stress were analyzed to characterize the function of BES1 gene family. The results showed that there were 9 candidate BES1 genes in pepper. According to the structure of BES1, they were divided into 2 categories: ClassⅠand ClassⅡ, with great difference in structure. The BES1 encoding proteins were range from 181 to 713 amino acids, the molecular weights of BES1 encoding proteins were 20.22~78.23 kDa, and the range of isoelectric point was 5.48~9.23. The result of RNA-seq data indicated that the expression of the BES1 gene in pepper is different. Under the stress of ABA, cold, heat, Me and Phytophthora blight, both CA04g20150 and CA12g17430 were induced to upregulated, indicating that they may played a role in biotic and abiotic stress. The study laid foundation for exploring the molecular mechanism of the BES1 gene family regulating plant stress resistance.
TONG Shu-yuan~(1,2) SONG Feng-bin~(1*) XU Hong-wen~(1,2)(1.Northeast Institute of Geography and Agricultural Ecology,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Changchun,Jinlin 130012 2.Graduate University of Chinese Academy of Sciences,Beijing 100049)
2008, 22 (06): 869-874. DOI: 10.11869/hnxb.2008.06.0869
Abstract1380)      PDF (384KB)(2299)      

SPAD value of leaf at different position of maize of loosely type and compact type Zhengdan 958,and the correlation of SPAD value of functional leaf in different growing stage to biomass were studied in field experiment.The results are as follow:(1)SPAD value increased with the rising of leaf position in the same maize variety,and reached the maximum in the leaf at middle of plant,then declined.There was no difference between two varieties;(2)The variation trend of the SPAD value in the same leaf position of two varieties was alike with the growth.SPAD value firstly increased with the growth of leaf,then kept during a stable middle age and followed by a decline with the aging of leaf.The SPAD value of lower leaf in compact type maize was significantly lower than loosely type in the middle-later period of growth,however,the SPAD value of top and middle leaf in loosely type maize were significantly lower than compact type maize in middle-later and later period of growth.(3)From seedling stage to silking stage,SPAD value of functional leaf had a positive relation with the single plant biomass,but there was no significant relationship between them after silking stage.

Genome-wide Identification of KNOX Gene Family in Tomatoand Their Evolutionary Relationship in Solanaceae
YE Shuguang, ZAI Wenshan, XIONG Zili, ZHANG Haili, MA Yanru
2017, 31 (7): 1263-1271. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2017.07.1263
Abstract381)   HTML13)    PDF (7547KB)(704)      
To investigate the characteristics of KNOX gene family in tomato and their evolutionary relationships in Solanaeae, KNOX gene family in tomato and other Solanaceae (potato and pepper) were identified using bioinformatics method. The results showed that the tomato genome contained 8 SlKNOX genes ( SlKNOX1- SlKNOX8), distributed across 8 chromosomes of tomato. Multiple sequence alignment showed, except for SlKNOX5, all other proteins included 4 conservative domains (KNOX1, KNOX2, ELK and Homeobox KN), which were specific for plant KNOX proteins. Phylogenetic analysis characterized 2 classes of KNOX genes: Class I with 3 sub-classes (A, B and C) and Class II with 2 sub-classes (A and B). Compared with KNOX genes in Arabidopsis, KNOX genes in Solanaceae have a different evolutionary process. Furthermore, a novel branch (Class IC) has occurred in Solanaceae. qRT-PCR analysis revealed SlKNOX1 was high expression in bud and flower, gradually reduced in the process of fruit mature. Expression of SlKNOX2, SlKNOX3 and SlKNOX4 was not deleted in the process of fruit mature. SlKNOX6 and SlKNOX7 were expressed in all tested tissues. Expression level of SlKNOX8 was gradually enhanced in the process of fruit mature, and the expression in root was the highest. In this study, the characteristics of KNOX gene family in tomato were revealed on the genome level and their phylogenetic relationships in Solanaceae were clarified, which will contribute to further elaborate their functions in different tissues and their evolutionary relationships in Solanaceae.
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