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Advance in Preparation and Application of Biochar and Modified Biochar Research
JI Haiyang, WANG Yuying, LIU Yuxue, LYU Haohao, HE Lili, YANG Shengmao
2018, 32 (11): 2281-2287. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2018.11.2281
Abstract727)   HTML23)    PDF (1140KB)(1631)      
Biochar has been widely used in soil improvement, pollutant removal, carbon sequestration and mitigation because of its wide source of materials, large specific surface area, well developed pores, rich carbon, rich surface functional groups, etc. In recent years, biochar has been found that the physical, chemical or biological modification of biochar will intensify the functions of biochar, and be more favorable to the efficient utilization of biochar. This paper reviews the preparation, physical and chemical properties analysis, and the application of biochar and modified biochar in soil, water, and atmosphere. The problems existing in the utilization of biochar are analyzed objectively by comparing the properties of biochar before and after modification. It will provide a certain theoretical basis for the reasonable preparation and application of biochar and modified biochar.
LI Yong~1WEI Yi-min~(1,2)WANG Feng~2(1.Collage of Food Science Technology and Engineering, Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, Yang Ling, Shaanxi, 712100; 2.Institute of Agro-Science and Technology, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing, 100094)
2005, 19 (03): 236-240. DOI: 10.11869/hnxb.2005.03.0236
Abstract1367)      PDF (209KB)(4450)      

This article discusses various factors that may affect the accuracy of analysis results by NIR Spectroscopy technique. Content of ingredient and quantity, physical properties of references and samples; test conditions and instrumental factors are reviewed in terms of influence on the result accuracy of NIR spectroscopy analysis. The precaution measures to avoid the influences during analysis are provided.

Effects of Lipids on Gel Properties of Food Proteins and Its Mechanism
ZHOU Xuxia, CHEN Hong, CHEN Ting, LYU Fei, GU Saiqi, DING Yuting
2018, 32 (9): 1808-1813. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2018.09.1808
Abstract400)   HTML203)    PDF (1133KB)(1383)      
Gel, which is a dilution system of unsteady fluids, is a mesophase between the solid and the liquid. Gel properties are one of the important functional properties of food proteins. Studies show that in some special protein gel systems, the interactions between lipid and protein have an important effect on the quality of the food through affecting the rheological properties and microstructure of protein gels. The interactions are affected by lipid species, lipid content, emulsifier, ion species and concentration and other factors. In this paper, the mechanism of the formation of protein gel was introduced. Based on this, we focused on the participation and mechanisms of lipids in the formation of protein gels in several protein gel systems, reviewed factors that affect lipid and food protein gel interaction, and put forward problems and development direction for the lipid and protein gel research.. The results would provide a theoretical basis for the production of high quality food.
Guan Changzhi\ Yin Lirong\ Guo Fuchang (Tianjin Institute of Horticultural Engneering,Tianjin\ 300192) Yu Fengyi\ Zhang Ping (The Institute of Application of Atomic Energy,CAAS,Beijing\ 100094)
1999, 13 (01): 17-0. DOI: 10.11869/hnxb.1999.01.0017
Abstract1660)      PDF (220KB)(1363)      

Jinchun No.4 cucumber graft seedlings(the rootstock was China squash of black seeds)were used to study the effects of graft promoting agent on healing process of graft union,survival rate,absorption,transportation and distribution of 32 P induced from roots and 14 C from leaves.The results showed that the graft promoting agent accelerated the healing tissue production,connection of vessel and sievetube,increased the survival rate,total absorption of 32 P, total transportation and ratio of 32 P and 14 C. The agent caused 32 P to reach scion from rootstocks and 14 C to reach rootstocks from scion 2 days earlier than control.

Research Progress in Preparation and Application of Cellulose Nanocrystals
ZHU Shunshun, MU Taihua, SUN Hongnan
2022, 36 (1): 174-182. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2022.01.0174
Abstract538)   HTML30)    PDF (5236KB)(470)      

Cellulose nanocrystals (CNC) are rod-like nanomaterials extracted from natural plant fibers, with a length of several hundred nanometers and a width of 5~50 nm. Because it is natural green, biodegradable, biocompatible with high specific surface area and great reactivity, CNC has been widely investigated by researchers. In this review, the preparation and modification methods of CNC are summarized, and the characterization methods of CNC are also introduced. Furthermore, the applications of CNC materials in biomedicine, photoelectric energy, environmental protection, food and other fields are also summarized, and its future development trend is prospected. This review may provide theoretical references for the development and utilization of cellulose nanocrystals.

Evaluation of Soil Nutrient Content and Its Distribution of Cultivated Land in South of Xinjiang: Taking Aksu Prefecture as an Example
TIAN Liwen, QI Yongchun, DAI Lu, CUI Jianping, GUO Rensong, XU Haijiang, LIN Tao, ZHANG Na
2020, 34 (1): 214-223. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2020.01.0214
Abstract563)   HTML12)    PDF (2491KB)(1159)      
To explore the soil nutrient content and distribution characteristics of cultivated land in south Xinjiang after years of cultivating since the second national land survey in 1982, the Aksu prefecture of xinjiang cotton producing area with typical natural ecological conditions in southern Xinjiang was taken as a representative in our research. Field investigation and laboratory analysis were used to measure the soil major element content of organic matter, total nitrogen, available nitrogen, available phosphorus, available potassium and microelement content of available copper, iron, zinc, manganese, then the determination results were analyzed by combining with relevant indices of soil nutrient grading in Xinjiang. The results showed that compared with 1982, soil nutrient content in the cultivated land was greatly improved. The average organic matter content of the whole region was 13.56 g·kg -1; total nitrogen alkaline hydrolysis nitrogen, available phosphorus and available potassium were 680, 62.30, 13.90 and 145.00 mg·kg -1, respectively. Among them, the organic matter content in Aksu Prefecture was the same as that of in 1982, while the available potassium content was decreased at rate of 2.20 mg·kg -1 annually , and the content of available nitrogen and available phosphorus were higher 74.50% and 385.86% than that of in 1982, respectively. The overall result was as follows: that the content of phosphorus and potassium was abundant, the organic matter was in the middle level, except for the effective manganese content in the lower-middle level; the content of effective copper, available iron and zinc were in different degree of abundant state, and the content of nitrogen was low. In summary, it was recommended to strengthen the implementation of the balanced fertilization program for the current nutrient content levels and trends of soil, and to improve the content of soluble fertilizers such as nitrogen through reasonable irrigation, and prevent soil salinization. Thus, this research provided a theoretical basis for the future agricultural production of soil fertility and scientific fertilization in Aksu prefecture.
HE Zhen-Tian, CHEN Xiu-Lan, ZHANG Rong, WANG Jian-Hua, WANG Jin-Rong, LIU Jian
2011, 25 (1): 75-78. DOI: 10.11869/hnxb.2011.01.0075
Abstract1836)      PDF (125KB)(1614)      

To control the infection of wheat yellow mosaic disease, new wheat variety with high-yield, disease-resistant was selected. Ningmai 9, which carries yellow mosaic disease resistant genes, was used as original material. Combination of conventional breeding technique and radiation methods, a new wheat variety Yangfumai 4 was developed during 1996-2007, and registered in 2008. The new wheat variety with high yield and resistance to yellow mosaic disease is suitable to plant in the Yangtze River region.

The Concept and Estimation of Mutation Rate and Mutation Frequency
HU Yan-ji, LIANG Hong
2013, (3): 293-300. DOI: 10.11869/hnxb.2013.03.0293
Abstract1921)      PDF (1009KB)(1068)      

Mutation rate is the probability that a particular kind of mutation occurs per unit of time which can be expressed as mutations per locus, per gene, per nucleotide, or per gamete in each generation or at each DNA replication. Mutation frequency is the proportion of the number of mutated cell or individual in a population. Mutation can be identified from either phenotype or genotype. Genotypic identification is a new method after phenotypic identification for estimating the mutation rate, in which microsatellites have been widely used for estimation of the mutation rate, but very few data are available in plants. This article summarizes the estimation methods of mutation rate and mutation frequency from the point of view of plant mutation genetics and breeding, especially paying attention to the research advances in estimation methods of microsatellite mutation rate in crops including durum wheat, chickpea, corn, common wheat and pea. Furthermore, the application of TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes) technology in mutation screening is briefly summarized.

ZHU Xue-yun1 CHEN Li-ping2
2010, 24 (6): 1185-1191. DOI: 10.11869/hnxb.2010.06.1185
Abstract1416)      PDF (349KB)(4044)      

The existing state of studies on plant chimeras and it application on plant breeding were introduced in this paper. The plant chimera types and stableness, the development of tissue and organ in plant chimeras, interactions in genetically different cells, and the opportunity for plant breeding were reviewed respectively.

WU Jing LIU Xiu-min ZHANG Wei CHEN Ming LIN Min(1.Biotechnology Research Institute,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences,Beijing 100081;2.Hebei Jiaotong Vocational & Technical College,Shijiazhuang,Hebei 050091)
2008, 22 (05): 590-594. DOI: 10.11869/hnxb.2008.05.0590
Abstract1922)      PDF (205KB)(4540)      

In this study,the 1.4 kb sacB gene from Bacillus subtilis genomic DNA was cloned into the expression vector pET-28a(+).The product of gene sacB had the levansucrase activity determined by glucose release from sucrose hydrolysis. The expression of sacB gene in Escherichia coli could cause cell death when exposed to 5% sucrose in medium.And sacB gene also confered a sucrose-sensitive phenotype for the extremely radiation-resistant bacterium,Deinococcus sp.BR501.Using the conditional-lethal gene sacB to analyze the mutation rates of Deinococcus sp.BR501,we found that the rate of the DNA mismatch repair deficient strain(ΔmutS1) was obviously higher than that of wild type strain.Our result suggested that B.subtilis sacB gene could be used as a negative-selection marker to identify and characterize the genes involved in DNA demage repair.

The Effect of Low Temperature and Novel Cryoprotectants on Fish Protein
LIU Jianhua, LUO Yahong, SU Qi, ZHANG Jianyou, DING Yuting
2017, 31 (6): 1137-1144. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2017.06.1137
Abstract225)   HTML1)    PDF (1140KB)(587)      
Aquatic products are rich in variety and nutrition, but its unique biological characteristics make it easy to corrupt at room temperature. The method of storage currently used is cold storage. During the storage, protein would denature and the functional properties would reduce, which lead to the decrease in flavor and nutrition. Cryoprotectants can effectively prevent aquatic products denaturation during cold storage, but the traditional cryoprotectants don’t meet the current low sugar consumption standard. With the rapid development of aquatic products, the production of more novel cryoprotectants is of great practical significance. This paper discussed the factors that affect fish protein denaturation. Also the mechanism of denaturation and the changes in structural and functional properties of myofibrillar proteins during frozen storage was summarized. Finally the effect of the novel cryoprotectants on the quality of aquatic products and its mechanism were described to lay a foundation for the development of novel cryoprotectants.
Genetic Analysis of Cold Tolerance at Germination Stage by RIL Population of Peanut
XUE Yunyun, TIAN Yuexia, ZHANG Xin, ZHANG Huiqi, LI Na, LIANG Yuying, ZHANG Jiayu, BAI Dongmei
2023, 37 (4): 690-698. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.1000-8551.2023.04.0690
Abstract51)   HTML5)    PDF (1065KB)(97)      

Peanut is an important oil and cash crop widely distributed in China. Low temperature stress is a key obstacle that severely restricts its production development in high latitude or altitude producing areas. The damage is the most prevalent and serious in seed germination stage. Therefore, it is of great significance to deeply study the genetic characteristics of cold tolerance in seed germination stage of peanut. In this study, two Recombinant Inbred Line (RIL) populations were constructed by crossing varieties with strong cold tolerance and varieties with weak cold tolerance [HY44×DF12 (HD-RIL) and YZ9102×XZ68-4 (YX-RIL)]. The genetic characteristics of the relative germination rate in two RIL populations under low temperature stress were analyzed by using the major gene plus additive polygene mixed genetic model. The results showed that under E1(Ledong, Hainan in 2020), the cold tolerance traits in the two RIL populations were controlled by three major genes plus additive polygenes with additive-epistatic effect, with the heritability of major genes accounting for 86.72% (HD-RIL) and 91.46% (YX-RIL). Under E2(Fenyang, Shanxi in 2021), the cold tolerance was controlled by two major genes plus polygenes with dominant-epistatic effect. The heritability of major genes was 74.35% and 79.56%. The cold tolerance traits for HD-RIL population under E3(Nanbin, Hainan in 2021) and YX-RIL population under E4(Fenyang, Shanxi in 2020) were controlled by two major genes plus additive polygenes with accumulative effect. The heritability of major genes was 64.20% and 59.05%, respectively. The results of this study will provide an important theoretical basis for further research on the molecular mechanism of cold tolerance in seed germination period and improve the efficiency in cold tolerance molecular breeding.

LIU Lu-xiang GUO Hui-jun ZHAO Lin-shu GU Jia-yu ZHAO Shi-rong (Institute of Crop Science,Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences/ The National Key Facility for Crop Gene Resources and Genetic Improvement,Beijing 100081)
2007, 21 (06): 589-592+601. DOI: 10.11869/hnxb.2007.06.0589
Abstract1964)      PDF (182KB)(2795)      

Space breeding is a novel effective approach to crop mutational improvement,which was firstly founded by the chinese scientists in 1987.A national collaborative research network has been established and significant achievements have been made during the past twenty years.More than forty new mutant varieties derived from space mutagenesis in rice,wheat,cotton,sweet pepper,tomato,sesame and alfalfa have been developed,officially released and put into production.A series of useful rare mutant germplasms which might make a great breakthrough in crop grain yield and/or quality improvement have been obtained.Technique innovations in space breeding and ground simulation of space environmental factors have been made good progresses.Intellective property right protection and industrialization of space mutation techniques and mutant varieties,exploration of the mechanism of space mutation induction have also been stably advanced.In this paper,the main achievements of crop space breeding in the past twenty years had been reviewed.The perspective development strategies of space breeding were also discussed.

WU Xi lin YANG Feng (Institute of Animal Nutrition,Sichuan Agricultural University,Ya′an, Sichuan prov.\ 625014)
2002, 16 (03): 156-161. DOI: 10.11869/hnxb.2002.03.0156
Abstract1600)      PDF (173KB)(2273)      

This paper discussed the concept and research methods of protein turnover in animal body.The existing problems and the research results of animal protein turnover in recent years were presented.Meanwhile,the measures to improve the models of animal protein turnover were analyzed.

Researches of Low Cadmium Accumulation in Rice
HU Wanyin, WANG Yin, WU Dianxing, SHU Xiaoli
2021, 35 (1): 93-102. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2021.01.0093
Abstract386)   HTML13)    PDF (1286KB)(747)      
In recent years, cadmium pollution in rice has become a serious problem with the security of global food. Systematic understandings the regulation mechanism of cadmium responsive gene and the factors affecting cadmium metabolism are helpful for breeding new rice varieties with low cadmium accumulation and high quality. This review focused on the mechanisms of cadmium absorption from the soil, transportation from root to shoot and accumulation in rice grains, and elaborated the influencing factors and summarized the studies on genes involved in cadmium metabolism in rice, which was aimed to provide references for breeding rice with low cadmium accumulation by molecular design breeding.
Review on Chemical Structures and Biological Activities of Spermidine Derivatives in Plants
ZHAO Shuo, XING Cencan, WANG Yan, SUO Ran, WANG Fengzhong
2018, 32 (1): 123-130. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2018.01.0123
Abstract276)   HTML8)    PDF (1167KB)(1122)      
Spermidine derivatives, which widely existed in the pollen, leaf and fruit in the plants, are a kind of natural compounds which the hydrogen atom of spermidine is replaced by other functional group. The structural identification, purification, especially the biological activities of spermidine derivatives are still worthy to explore. This review summarizes the chemical structures, sources, purification and biological activities of spermidine derivatives reported in the past 30 years, which may possibly build a foundation for future research of spermidine derivatives with special functions.
Effects of Different Flex Cropping Modes on Soil Enzyme Activities and Soil Nutrients in the Cold Area of Middle Part of Gansu
LUO Ying, WANG Liguang, CHEN Jun, YE Chunlei, ZHANG Renzhi, LUO Junjie
2017, 31 (6): 1185-1191. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2017.06.1185
Abstract310)   HTML2)    PDF (1261KB)(454)      
In order to explore the critical effects of the function of soil enzyme activity and the balance of soil nutrient on continuous cropping obstacles, flax was used as the main experimental material, and the method of located experiment was adopted. Four treatments was designed as flax-wheat rotation (TR), continuous cropping of flax (TC), flax/wheat intercropping (TI), and uncultivated (TU). The results showed that, at the layer of 0 to 20cm in the soil, TC model obviously decreased the activities of catalase, urease, alkaline phosphatase and sucrase, which is 8.73%, 4.17%, 1.22% and 4.44% lower than TR model, respectively, in the whole growth period. As for the spatial distribution, the four kinds of enzyme activities sharply descended with the increasing of soil depth. However, no significant distinction was found in soil enzyme activity at the layers of 40cm and 60cm. Correlation analysis of soil nutrients and soil enzyme activities indicated that TC model had a significant negative correlation to soil enzyme activity and the balance of soil nutrient, while TR model showed an obvious positive correlation. In a conclusion, TR and TI model could establish a theoretical base and practical experience for reducing and eliminating continuous cropping obstacles.
Overview of the Characteristics of Crop Straw Decomposition and Nutrients Release of Returned Field Crops
ZHANG Jingting, ZHANG Lihua, LYU Lihua, DONG Zhiqiang, YAO Yanrong, JIN Xinxin, YAO Haipo, JIA Xiuling
2018, 32 (11): 2274-2280. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2018.11.2274
Abstract386)   HTML3)    PDF (1122KB)(769)      
As one of the most effective utilization ways of crop straw, straw returning can significantly increase crop yield and promote resource recycling and sustainable agricultural development. The rapid decomposition of straw returned to the field played a critical role in improving topsoil quality and increasing soil fertility. The objective of this study was to summarize the characteristics of crop straw decomposition and mineral nutrient release after straw returning to the field. The related factors which could have profound influences on straw decomposition and nutrients release were also discussed. These factors mainly consisted of crop species, straw C∶N value, exogenous nitrogen application, straw returning methods, biodegradation agents and the soil environment condition, etc. Finally, the paper put forward the prospect on how to realize the efficient utilization of straw resources in the new production condition. The study provided a scientific and systematic straw returning program for crop production, and provided a theoretical basis for accelerating the decomposition of straw and releasing and reusing nutrients.
Study on Physicochemical Properties and Chemical Structure of the Blue Purple Pigment Producted by Bacteria
XU Man, HAN Ye, LYU Jiaping, XUE Haixiao, PANG Xiaoyang, ZHANG Shuwen, LIU Lu
2016, 30 (3): 533-540. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2016.03.0533
Abstract249)   HTML1)    PDF (6390KB)(680)      
In order to explore the basic properties of the blue and purple nature pigments produced by bacteria.Experiments used high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), mass spectrometry, and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) to analysis the physicochemical properties and chemical structure of the blue purple pigment producted by psychrophilic bacteria.The results showed that: the blue-purple pigment was verified to be composed of deoxidation violacein and violacein with the ratio of about 1∶9. The results of the physical and chemical properties of the blue purple pigment revealed that the purple pigment had good thermal stability, but light and strong alkali had a larger effect on color; soluble in methanol, acetone and other organic solvents, slightly soluble in water; copper ion has a great influence on its stability. This study provides a basis for the research and application of the biological activity, anti tumor, anti viral drugs and biological dyes,etc.
The Molecular Mechanisms of Growth-regulating Factors (GRFs) in Plant Growth, Development and Stress Response
MA Chao, YUAN Jiale, ZHANG Su, JIA Qishi, FENG Yalan
2017, 31 (11): 2145-2153. DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2017.11.2145
Abstract374)   HTML13)    PDF (1593KB)(1452)      
Growth-regulating factors (GRFs) are the plant specific transcription factors family. GRFs signal pathway mediates many important life processes, such as seed development, root growth, and flower development. In addition, upstream gene of GRFs had been discovered, and gradually downstream target genes of GRFs are being unraveled. This review focuses on the gene feature, biological function, and regulatory mechanism of GRFs. Meanwhile, the prospects and development trend of GRFs were also discussed. This review will provide valuable information for the related studies.
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