Journal of Nuclear Agricultural Sciences ›› 2018, Vol. 32 ›› Issue (6): 1162-1170.DOI: 10.11869/j.issn.100-8551.2018.06.1162

• Food Irradiation·Food Science • Previous Articles     Next Articles

Effect of Heat Treatment on the Texture Properties and Composition of Agaricus bisporus

SHI Ruijie1, GUO Limeng1, CHEN Zhenjia1, CHANG Mingchang2, MENG Junlong2, LIU Jingyu1, FENG Cuiping1,*   

  1. 1 College of Food Science and Engineering, Shanxi Agricultural University, Taigu, Shanxi 030801;
    2 Edible Fungus Engineering Technology Centerin of Shanxi Province, Taigu, Shanxi 030801
  • Received:2017-09-26 Revised:2017-12-22 Online:2018-06-10 Published:2018-04-28

热处理对双孢蘑菇质构特性和成分的影响

史瑞婕1, 郭李萌1, 陈振家1, 常明昌2, 孟俊龙2, 刘靖宇1, 冯翠萍1,*   

  1. 1 山西农业大学食品科学与工程学院,山西 太谷 030801;
    2 山西省食用菌工程技术中心,山西 太谷 030801
  • 通讯作者: 冯翠萍,女,教授,主要从事食品营养与安全研究。E-mail:ndfcp@163.com
  • 作者简介:史瑞婕,女,主要从事食品营养与安全研究。E-mail:srj0505@163.com
  • 基金资助:
    山西省重点研发计划(重点)项目(201603D211201),山西省煤基重点科技攻关项目(FT2014-03-01),黄土高原食用菌提质增效协同创新中心资助

Abstract: To evaluate the effects of heat treatment on the quality characteristics of Agaricus bisporus, Agaricus bisporus was heated at 75, 85, 95 and 121℃ for 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 min, respectively, in this experiment. The polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity and total phenolic content were analyzed by chemical method, color difference was measured by colorimeter, and texture properties were determined by texture analyzer, including hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness, chewiness and adhesiveness. Combined with sensory evaluation, the optimum heating treatment condition was selected. In this condition, the tissue structure was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and volatile flavor components were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that PPO activity and the total phenolic content decreased significantly, while color difference value increased first and then decreased. Along with the temperature increasing and heating time extending, hardness, chewiness, adhesiveness and viscosity decreased gradually, and cohesion value increased first and then decreased. Combined with sensory evaluation, the optimum heat treatment condition was 95℃ for 10 min, in which the tissue structure of Agaricus bisporus became loose, aperture structure increased slightly, the water holding capacity enhanced, and the plant flavors and mushroom flavors thickened, as well as slight baked flavor. Hence, appropriate heat treating could increase the texture characteristics of Agaricus bisporus and endow it with new flavor. The experiment provided theoretical basis for the processing and keeping the unique flavor of Agaricus bisporus to the maximum extent.

Key words: Agaricus bisporus, heat treatment, texture properties, tissue structure, flavor components

摘要: 为研究热处理对双孢蘑菇质量特性的影响,本试验在75、85、95和121℃条件下分别进行热处理0.5、1、5、10、15和20 min后,测定多酚氧化酶(PPO)活性、总酚含量、色差、质构指标,结合感官评价筛选出最适的热处理温度和时间,并在最适热处理条件下,观察组织结构和挥发性成分的变化。结果表明,双孢蘑菇PPO活性和总酚含量显著下降,总色差(△E)先上升后下降;随着温度的升高和时间的延长,硬度、咀嚼性、弹性和胶粘性逐渐下降,内聚性值先升高后降低;结合感官评价得出最适热处理条件为温度95℃、时间10 min;热处理后双孢蘑菇组织结构疏松、细胞孔隙微增,细胞间持水能力增大,植物香型和蘑菇香型变浓,同时还呈现出微弱的烤香型气味。综上,适当的热处理可增加双孢蘑菇的质构特性并赋予其新的风味。本研究结果为双孢蘑菇的加工提供了理论基础,在最大程度上保证了双孢蘑菇的独特风味。

关键词: 双孢蘑菇, 热处理, 质构特性, 组织结构, 风味成分